The steady, developing turbulent flow in a circular-sectioned 180° bend has been investigated. The bend had a radius of 104 mm and a curvature radius ratio of 4.0 with long, straight upstream and downstream pipes. Measurements of the longitudinal, radial and circumferential components of mean velocity, and corresponding components of the Reynolds stress were obtained with a hot wire anemometer at a Reynolds number of 6×104 and at various longitudinal stations. The velocity fields of the primary and secondary flows and the Reynolds stresses were illustrated in the form of contour map or vector diagram. Moreover, the mean quantities characterizing the bend flow, i.e., the deflection of the primary flow in the cross section, the intensity of the secondary flow and the turbulence energy, were shown in a graphic form against the longitudinal distances. In the section upstream from a bend angle of about 60°, both the flows through the 180° and the 90° bend are closely similar in their behavior. In the section from the bend angle of 90°, the high-velocity regions, however, occur near the upper and lower walls as a result of strong secondary flow and the turbulence with high level emerges in the central region of the bend. Just behind the bend exit, an additional pair of vortices appears in the outer part of the cross section owing to the transverse pressure difference. In the downstream tangent, the flow returns slowly to the proper flow in a straight pipe, but it needs a longer distance for recovery than in the 90° bend.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 1, 2000
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