EXPERIENCE OF USING MIXTURE KSVKh-1 IN INDUCTION FURNACES
AT THE AMO ZIL WORKS
V. I. Sizov
and V. P. Enenko
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 13 – 14, May, 2007.
Original article submitted April 5, 2007.
The service results of submerged-resistor induction furnaces for pig iron exposure of the vertical (capacity 30
tons) and horizontal (capacity 60 tons) types at the AMO ZIL Works are described. The furnace lining is made
of KSVKh-1 corundum mixture by casting. The lining is found to be reliable in service, and its resistance is
more than two times higher than that of mixture MK-90.
Three submerged-resistor induction furnaces function at
the AMO ZIL Works. Two of them are drum-type (horizon-
tal) of capacity 60 tons (equipped with two induction heaters
of 1100 kW each) and one vertical-type furnace of capacity
30 tons, which is also equipped with two induction heaters of
850 kW each. Previously, the working layer of the vertical
furnace lining was made of mixture MK-90 and its resistance
was not more than one year. The working layer lining of the
drum-type furnace was made of dense corundum products,
including profiled blocks. The corundum lining in these mix-
ers did not, as a rule, last more than a year and a half .
Starting in 2001, the AMO ZIL successfully used the
KSVKh-1 dry vibropressed corundum mixture with an chro
mium oxide additive (TU 1523-007-00187085–2001) pro
duced by the REIN company and the DINUR JSC  as lin
ing in vertical submerged-resistor induction furnaces. Unlike
other companies, in particular, the AvroVAZ Works, which
makes lining elements lining from KBSKh-1 mixture using
the dry and semidry variants, the AMO ZIL from the begin
ning decided to produce lining using the “concrete” method,
i.e. by casting, despite the fact that the mixture does not con
tain hydraulic binder (cement). The studies performed during
the development of this series of mixtures have established
that they have thixotropic properties. After 5 – 6 wt.% water
is added, the mixture becomes fluid, which makes it possible
to produce complex-shaped lining in large masses using
depth vibrators. Laboratory studies indicate that this method
increases 2 – 3 times the heat resistance of this mixture
(1300°C – water) compared to the heat resistance of the
samples made of the dry ramming mixture.
The first prototype lining on the vertical submerged-
resistor furnace (No. 3) served for one year, after which
the furnace was removed from service because of a break in
the slope mechanism, which led to metal congealing on the
hearth. Analysis of the lining revealed no visible defects and
proved that it could continue operation. Therefore, in the be-
ginning of 2004 the same furnace was again lined with the
mixture KSVKh-1 for the second time and served for two
years and two months. Unfortunately, the furnace again was
removed from service at the end of April 2006 because of the
slope mechanism failure. During the entire service period the
temperature on the furnace body was 200 – 215°C, which in
dicated a low penetration of metal into the lining and a nearly
total absence of wear.
In horizontal furnaces the lining of KSVKh-1 mixture
was implemented in stages. Initially the mixture was used in
furnace No.1 to line the nozzles in combination with profiled
corundum blocks. The experimental nozzles served for 18
months, which justified the decision to pass to the next
stages. A repeated lining of this furnace (this time without
profiled corundum blocks in the nozzles or blocks framing
the slag porthole) was carried out in 2004. The roof of the
furnace, as before, was made of corundum products. The fur
nace was put into service on the 12
of November 2004 and
continues operating to date.
Obviously, the application of mixture KSVKH-1 lining
horizontal furnaces requires more special care than lining
vertical furnaces, since in this case lining is implemented in
several phases, which are coordinated with molding and dry
ing the nozzles, laying the inlet and discharge siphons, and
casting the lateral and end walls. However, even in the case
of this rather protracted lining cycle (1 month) the subse
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 2, 2007
1083-4877/07/4802-00081 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
REIN Company, Russia.
AMO ZIL Works, Russia.