75 ANNIVERSARY OF THE JSC MAGNITOGORSKII
EXPERIENCE OF PREPARING AND USING WATER-FREE
TAP-HOLE MIXES IN OAO MMK
V. G. Ovsyannikov,
A. N. Nikiforov,
L. B. Novoselova,
M. E. Voronkov,
and A. A. Tyukalov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 18 – 20, February, 2007.
Original article submitted November 22, 2006.
In the OAO MMK blast furnace plant water-free tap-hole mixes have been introduced with a carbon-contain
ing concentrate, with a ferrosilicon nitride tap-hole product from Spetsremstroi OOO, and a Chinese product.
In the first (traditional) composition instead of the coke portion there is use of a carbon-containing concentrate
(CCC). Presence of silicon carbide and carbon in the CCC promotes and increase in the slag and iron resis-
tance of the tap-hole mix. Testing a mix of the second composition has shown that in a number of parameters it
is at the level of imported mixes and even surpasses them, only being inferior in specific consumption.
In the OAO MMK blast furnace plant in order to close
iron tap-holes there is use of a water-free tap-hole mix devel-
oped and introduced by the plant laboratory in the 1980s to-
gether with the Ukrainian Institute of Refractories. As bind-
ers and a plastifier there is use of refractory clay, coal tar and
pitch, and the refractory fillers are fireclay and broken coke.
The tap-hole refractory mix provides reliable closing of
the iron tap-hole and it exhibits the required plasticity guar
anteeing filling of the channel and part of the hearth wall ad
jacent to it; gas permeability, favoring rapid removal of gases
and moisture; resistance to chemical and physical action of
the slag, cast iron and hearth gases; refractoriness and ther
Under contemporary conditions in view of the increase
in blast furnace operation intensity the tap-hole mix has
ceased to satisfy the requirements of blast furnace operators.
Tapping is often rapid with discharge of molten product. The
rate of tapping has increased to 6 – 8 ton/min as a result of
burnout of the tap-hole channel. Therefore laboratory spe
cialists, the OAO MMK blast furnace plant and service orga
nizations in accordance with adopted programs have carried
out work in two directions:
1. Testing and introduction of contemporary imported
2. Improvement and development of new fundamental
compositions of water-free tap-hole mixes.
Work for the selection and testing of imported tap-hole
mixes started in the period 2002 – 2004. Tests were per
formed on water-free rapidly-hardening tap-hole mixes
based on a synthetic binder produced by the firms Pribliko
and OAO Dinur (according to Pribliko technology). How
ever, although the mix exhibited good operating properties, it
was not sufficiently adapted to OAO MMK operating condi
tions. The mix is very sensitive to the application tempera
ture, it is less plastic, it requires an increase in drill consump
tion, it led to a reduction in the iron tap-hole lining stability,
and in a number of cases to an increase in tap-hole cooler
temperature. As a result of careful analysis of technical and
commercial suggestions of foreign firms the most suitable
for the plant conditions appeared to be a mix produced in
A test batch of tap-hole mix was tested in 2005 and at the
start of 2006 favorable results were obtained, and from Sep
tember 2006 according to a decision by the plant manage
ment there was regular use of the mix at a rate of 60 tons per
month. The mix provides stable properties for the metal tap
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 1, 2007
1083-4877/07/4801-0001 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works Joint Stock Company (OAO
MMK); Spetsremstroi Limited Liability Company (OOO), Russia.
Increase in the service efficiency of blast furnace refractory
linings and subsidiary equipment: report of NIR TsLK OAO
MMK, Magnitogorsk (2005).