REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
EXPERIENCE IN THE USE AND COMPREHENSIVE MAINTENANCE
OF CONVERTER REFRACTORY LININGS
V. A. Sheremet,
A. V. Kekukh,
S. V. Troshii,
A. P. Stovpchenko,
A. S. Brodskii,
and O. I. Pavlyuchenkov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp.4–7,January, 2006.
Original article submitted August 1, 2005.
A technology for comprehensive maintenance of converter refractory linings has been developed at the
Krivorozhstal’ ISW. The technology is based on the use of flame gunning and slag splashing for building up a
protective coating layer on the refractory lining. The newly developed maintenance technology permits sub
stantial extension of the converter campaign and significant cost saving of steel production.
Durability of the converter refractory lining is a factor
important for the cost of steel produced. The lining durability
depends on the refractory materials used and melting tech-
nology conditions and can be improved substantially by ap-
plying adequate protection and maintenance measures.
Over the past decade, considerable progress has been
made in extending the service life of the lining for oxygen
converters, much owing to the use of advanced refractory
components as well as the introduction of efficient tech
niques for maintenance and protection of the lining. The in
crease in the converter’s campaign time without replacing
the refractory lining (primarily with foreign manufacturers in
the U.S., Japan, and China) has been achieved owing to
maintenance and repair efforts — mainly gunning and slag
splashing [1 – 4]. By way of example, a scull buildup tech
nology developed by American metallurgists made it possi
ble to achieve 36 thousand heats without replacing the con
verter lining .
A state program for development and modernization of
the mining and metallurgical industry over a period up to
2011 in Ukraine has envisaged measures aimed at a signifi
cant improvement of the durability of the lining of
steel-making units. The introduction of advanced technolo
gies made it possible to extend the service life of the lining of
oxygen converters at metallurgical plants in Russia and
Ukraine; however, the life of a steel-making plant without
lining replacement falls behind that achieved in the U.S.,
Canada, or China.
EXPERTISE GAINED IN THE SERVICE
AND PROTECTION OF CONVERTER LININGS
Improvement of the durability of converter linings can be
achieved by applying an appropriate set of protective mea
sures. Applying splash protection (using the final slag high in
MgO (8 – 14%) from a converter process), gunning, and
patching techniques made it possible to increase the con
verter’s service life in Russia and Ukraine to an average of
2500 – 4000 heats per campaign. A record-breaking durabi
lity of 5440 heats (data as of 2004)
was reported from the
Severstal’ JSC (Cherepovets, Vologda Region, Russia)
which, however, was substantially smaller than levels
achieved by leading manufacturers (in 1997, the average du
rability of refractory lining reported from the U.S. and Can
ada was 7500 heats ). Data on a converter durability of
2500 – 3000 heats per campaign from the WSISW JSC
(West-Siberia Iron and Steel Works, Novokuznetsk, Keme
rovo Region, Russia) [6, 7] and 3700 – 4000 heats from the
MISW JSC (Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, Magnito
gorsk, Russia)  have been reported.
Data on converter durability reported from manufactu
rers in Ukraine were somewhat less encouraging. At the
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 2, 2006
1083-4877/06/4702-0075 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Krivorozhstal’ Iron and Steel Works Joint-Stock Co., Krivoi Rog,
Ukraine; Technoengineering Joint-Stock Co., Kiev, Ukraine.
E. V. Rusinova (Severstal’ JSC) http://www.uralmet.ru/severstal.php.