Expanding genetic code: Amino acids 21 and 22, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine

Expanding genetic code: Amino acids 21 and 22, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine The discovery of two atypical amino acids, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, in the genetic code is discussed. These findings have expanded our understanding of the genetic code, since the repertoire of amino acids in the genetic code was supplemented by two novel ones, in addition of the standard 20 amino acids. Current views on specific mechanisms of selenocysteine insertion in forming selenoproteins are considered, as well as the results of studies of new translational components involved in biosynthesis and incorporation of selenocysteine at different stages of translation. Similarity in the strategies of decoding UGA and UAG as codons for respectively selenocysteine and pyrrolysine is discussed. The review also presents evidence on the medical and biological role of selenium and selenoproteins containing selenocysteine as the main biological form of selenium. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Genetics Springer Journals

Expanding genetic code: Amino acids 21 and 22, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine

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Publisher
SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 by Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Subject
Biomedicine; Microbial Genetics and Genomics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Human Genetics
ISSN
1022-7954
eISSN
1608-3369
D.O.I.
10.1134/S1022795410080016
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The discovery of two atypical amino acids, selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, in the genetic code is discussed. These findings have expanded our understanding of the genetic code, since the repertoire of amino acids in the genetic code was supplemented by two novel ones, in addition of the standard 20 amino acids. Current views on specific mechanisms of selenocysteine insertion in forming selenoproteins are considered, as well as the results of studies of new translational components involved in biosynthesis and incorporation of selenocysteine at different stages of translation. Similarity in the strategies of decoding UGA and UAG as codons for respectively selenocysteine and pyrrolysine is discussed. The review also presents evidence on the medical and biological role of selenium and selenoproteins containing selenocysteine as the main biological form of selenium.

Journal

Russian Journal of GeneticsSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 17, 2010

References

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