1070-4272/03/7605-0762$25.00C2003 MAIK [Nauka/Interperiodica]
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 5, 2003, pp. 762!765. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 76, No. 5,
2003, pp. 791!794.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2003 by Lugovskaya, Anufrieva, Gertseva, Krylova.
OF CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY
Exhaustive Purification of Aqueous Solutions with Schungite
Rock To Remove Phenols
I. G. Lugovskaya, S. I. Anufrieva, N. D. Gertseva, and A. V. Krylova
Fedorovskii Russian Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, Moscow, Russia
Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Engineering, Moscow, Russia
Received July 26, 2002; in final form, March 2003
Abstract-The possibility of exhaustive purification of aqueous solutions with schungite to remove phenol to
the MPC level and effects of the initial phenol concentration, sorption time, and other factors on the efficiency
of phenol recovery are studied.
In wastewater treatment by sorption, diverse syn-
thetic and natural materials are used, including acti-
vated and oxidized coals and active anthracites.
Theoretical and practical aspects of the use of car-
bonaceous adsorbents in wastewater treatment to re-
move organic substances are thoroughly examined
in [1, 2].
Apart from the known advantages, activated car-
bons have a series of drawbacks such as low abrasion
resistance, thermal regeneration loss, and, finally, high
cost. Furthermore, one of the significant drawbacks of
activated carbons is their low selectivity with respect
to many readily soluble organic compounds .
Recently good results were obtained with various
natural sorbents and also with some combinations of
sorbents, particularly, of activated carbon and mineral
sorbents (silica gels etc.) .
Among materials showing considerable promise are
Karelian schungite materials, which, thanks to their
complex mineral composition (quartz, aluminosili-
cates, carbon, etc.) are of interest as potential in-
tegrated sorbents simultaneously having properties of
carbonaceous and silicate materials. Schungite rocks
are characterized by high mechanical strength and
thermal and chemical resistance, and lower cost (com-
pared to activated carbons).
Gorshtein and Baron [4} reported on sorption of
phenol from aqueous solutions with modified schun-
gite obtained by alkaline, autoclave alkaline, or basic
aluminum nitrate treatment, etc. Note that most of
the works on phenol sorption with various sorbents,
including schungite, were performed for an initial
phenol concentration of 1003500 mg l
, not covering
the concentration range practically important from the
exhaustive purification standpoint, i.e., with phenol
concentrations lower by 233 orders of magnitude.
Because of extremely low maximal permissible
concentration (MPC) accepted for phenol (0.001 mg l
for fishponds), finishing treatment of weakly polluted
water is of particular importance. As follows from
published data, exhaustive water purification to re-
move phenol remains till now one of the most dif-
ficult problems, since none of the existing methods
provides a desired efficiency at reasonable per-
formance characteristics . Here we report data on
phenol sorption from aqueous solutions (initial phenol
) with schungite.
According to , Karelian schungite rocks are sub-
divided into five types by the free carbon content in
them (wt %): I 98, II 35375, III 20335, IV 10320,
and V 5310. In sorption experiments we used schun-
gite sorbent (SchS) samples obtained by crushing
type III schungite rock from the Zazhogino deposit to
the 2.530.5 mm size grade and also that modified
with aqueous NaOH. The contents of basic chemical
components in SchS, obtained by the photometric
, and Fe
), gasometric (C), atomic
absorption (CaO and MgO), and flame photometric
O and Na
O), were as follows (wt %):
56.46, C 26.26, Al
0.12, MgO 0.56, K
O 1.23, and Na
According to quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis
data, the major rock-forming minerals of schungite
rock are quartz (52%), hydromica (15%), schungite
matter (20%), feldspar (10%), and pyrite (2%).
Analyses were made at the Analytical Center for Certification
Testing, Russian Institute of Mineral Raw Materials.