Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 10, pp. 1892−1894.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text
I.I. Riik, A.L. Makarov, S.S. Mnatsakanov, 2010, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2010, Vol. 83, No. 10, pp. 1752−1754.
Examination of Mechanisms of Interaction of Polyvinyl Alcohol
with Optical Bleaching Agent
I. I. Riik, A. L. Makarov, and S. S. Mnatsakanov
St. Petersburg State University of Cinematography and Television, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received June 14, 2010
Abstract—The rheological and spectrophotometric characteristics of polymer compositions containing
optical bleaching agent were examined. The mechanism of interaction between the components of the polymer
composition was studied.
From the middle of last century polyvinyl alcohol
(PVA), either as such or in combination with other
polymers or polymer systems , is actively used as
a binder polymer in the paint industry. Despite the search
and implementation of new polymer compositions, the
polymer is widely used today.
Polyvinyl alcohol can be of a deep (the original vinyl
acetate) and partial degree of hydrolysis . A mass
fraction of residual acetate groups in the case of partial
hydrolysis of PVA for the most common kind of product
is 10.0 ± 2.0%. Hence, it is about one acetate group per
15 hydroxy groups. Water in this case is thermodynami-
cally a good solvent in contrast to PVA of deep degree
of hydrolysis. Dissolution occurs rapidly even at room
Dissolution of PVA with acetate group in the composi-
tion not more than 2.0 wt % occurs only at 85–90°С. Over
time solutions of such a PVA age acquiring turbidity and
forming aggregates up to crystalline polymers.
In the paint industry in recent years there are attempts
to efﬁ ciently use the optical bleaching agents (OBA). One
of the essential properties of the OBA is their ability to
form so-called solid solutions  with a polymer binder,
since as such OBAs are non-ﬂ uorescent and weakly
ﬂ uorescent substances of yellow or yellow-brown color.
Intense glow occurs in the case of a strong ﬁ xation of
OBA molecules: it reduces the non-radiative deactiva-
tion of the molecules due to the transfer of excitation
energy into kinetic energy of OBA molecules . This
ﬁ xation occurs during the formation of solid solution,
i.e., “hard” landing of OBA molecule in a fragment of the
macromolecule. This technique is used in the preparation
of ﬂ uorescent pigments, which are the solid solutions of
organic phosphors and their blends with dyes normally in
easily crushing resins and can be turned into a ﬁ ne pow-
der that is simply introduced into the paint composition.
Feature of the interaction of the optical bleaching agent
with polyvinyl alcohol is in the nature of this polymer, in
the ability to form strong hydrogen bonds. This mixture
has a sufﬁ ciently high optical quality (Figs. 1a, 1b).
Comparison of results obtained with the use of PVA
of various molecular compositions, indicates the practi-
cal coincidence of the spectrophotometric properties of
their mixtures with a same amount of OBA. Fluorescence
(by value of the peaks) depending on the weight
ratio of OBA and the polymer is ranked in the following
order: 1/32 > 1/16 > 1/8 > 1/4 > 1/2.
It is clear that the small amounts of OBA (1/64) ig-
nore comparatively small concentration differences in
PVA structure. However, in certain range of the ratios
without taking into account the results with the smallest
OBA content (1/64 ratio) we noted some concentration
dependence with a peak for the blend that corresponded
The intensity of the reﬂ ected light ﬂ ux (an intensity axis on Figs.
Hereafter a ratio of 1/2 corresponds to 2.5 wt % of OBA at the stan-
dard concentration of PVA 5%; 1/4, 1.25 wt %; 1/8, 0.63; 1/16,
0.32; 1/32, 0.16.