A comparison of amino acid sequences is performed for orthologs to the meiosis-specific proteins in humans and seven other species, including animals, fungi, and plants that serve as models for the study of molecular mechanisms of meiosis. It is demonstrated that the RAD51 recombination mediator protein is the most conserved of the studied proteins. Its meiotic homolog DMC1 is less conserved, like the MHL1 mismatch-repair protein. The meiosis-specific SPO11 endonuclease is the least conserved among the studied meiotic enzymes. Structural proteins of meiotic chromosomes are poorly conserved. REC8 meiotic cohesin has 6 times lower similarity in the organisms from different kingdoms than its somatic homolog RAD21. The intermediate conservation level is characteristic of the synaptonemal complex proteins containing HORMA domain. Two functional domains of SPO11 endonuclease and MutL Trans_MLH1 domain of MLH1 enzyme are equally or even less conserved than the whole proteins. HORMA functional domain of a number of synaptonemal complex proteins is only 2–3 times more conserved than the whole molecule. Thus, among the key meiotic proteins, the most conserved are proteins responsible for the accuracy of meiotic recombination. Cohesins, synaptonemal complex proteins, and meiosis-specific SPO11 endonuclease are less conserved even within their functional domains. Obviously, the meiosis-specific proteins have undergone independent evolution in different phylogenetic lineages of eukaryotes.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 4, 2017
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