Various experiments were carried out to promote biological control under semi-arid ecological conditions. In vitro assay, Aspergillus flavus seemed to be the most effective bioagent against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae with mycelial inhibition rate above 50%. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus exhibited an exceptional hyperparasitism against F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. The mycelial growth of five Macrophomina phaseolina isolates decreased in the presence of Trichoderma harzianum (44.42%). In greenhouse experiments, both A. flavus and A. fumigatus used preventively of melon inoculated with FOM generated the highest damage reduction rate of top and root dry weights (40–42 and 51–52%, respectively) and the lowest disease severity index (DSI). A. flavus was also effective in improving the plant development with the highest shoot (SDW) and root (RDW) dry weight values. Penicillium digitatum, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma viride treated preventively on watermelon and melon plants inoculated with M. phaseolina decreased the damage of SDW and RDW and DSI. The development rate revealed the growth improvement potential of T. harzianum (watermelon, 15%) and A. flavus (melon, 12%). Watermelon plants inoculated with F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae and treated curatively with Trichoderma erinaceum, T. viride, and A. flavus and other inoculated by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and treated by Trichoderma helicum recorded the highest values of growth parameters, similarly for T. erinaceum on melon plants inoculated by F. solani f. sp. cucurbitae. Among all treatments for plants inoculated by F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis, those three bioagents T. viride, T. erinaceum, and A. flavus revealed efficiency in plant growth. Trichoderma harzianum is the best bioagents against cucurbit soil-borne pathogens. Preventive treatment represents an effective strategy. Dipping roots with bioagent fungi suspension improve a good interaction pathogen antagonist.
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 15, 2018
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