Evaluation of Nd-Loaded SnO
:F Films Coated via Spray
1.—Department of Fundamental Sciences, Science Faculty, Erzurum Technical University, 25240
Erzurum, Turkey. 2.—High Technology Research Centre (YUTAM), Erzurum Technical
University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey. 3.—e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. 4.—e-mail:
Thin layers of single (F)- and double (F/Nd)-incorporated tin oxide have been
coated on glass substrate via spray pyrolysis. The structural, morphological,
electrical, and optical features of F-incorporated samples were evaluated
depending on the Nd loading. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that samples
had tetragonal tin oxide structure with (211) and (200) preferential directions.
The crystallite size and strain values varied from 37.98 nm and 1.21 9 10
52.12 nm and 1.88 9 10
. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed
that the samples consisted of pyramidal, polyhedral, and needle-shaped
granules. The lowest sheet resistance value of 1.22 X was found for 1.8 at.%
Nd + 25 at.% F-coloaded SnO
. However, the widest optical bandgap of
4.01 eV was observed for the single 25 at.% F-loaded sample. The Urbach tail
and ﬁgure of merit also changed in the ranges of 664 meV to 1296 meV and
6.4 9 10
to 2.3 9 10
, respectively. The results presented herein
indicate that the character of F-doped tin oxide ﬁlms can be controlled by Nd
loading and that these ﬁlms could be useful for technological applications.
Key words: Nd loading, FTO, spray pyrolysis
Electrically conductive, optically transparent
metal oxide (TCO) materials are widely used in
scientiﬁc and technological applications.
materials have great importance for solar cells, gas
sensors, Li-ion batteries, smart windows, diodes,
and infrared coatings.
Tin oxide (SnO
was one of the initial TCO materials, has achieved
important levels of commercialization.
nominal electrical resistance, superior visible trans-
mittance and infrared reﬂectance, chemical inert-
ness, and mechanical hardness.
tin oxide is a good insulator, but nonstoichiometry
resulting from oxygen vacancies and tin interstitials
results in n-type semiconductor property.
These features of tin oxide can be manipulated by
adding foreign elements to its structure. This can be
achieved by replacing of Sn
additive atoms. The activity of the additive depends
on the match between the ionic radius of the host
and additive atoms.
Fluorine (F) and neodymium
(Nd) can be chosen as cation and anion additives.
substituted for Sn
additional electrons to the tin oxide structure.
Therefore, an increment in the visible transmission,
infrared reﬂection, and electrical conduction is
Undoped and doped SnO
been fabricated via sol–gel spin coating, sputtering
methods, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), pulsed
laser deposition (PLD), thermal and reactive evap-
oration, and spray pyrolysis.
is an intriguing approach to coat thin layers owing
to its simple and inexpensive apparatus,
bility, facile control of chemical ingredients, homo-
geneous coating, and superior deposition rate.
However, literature search reveals that tin oxide
loaded simultaneously with ﬂuorine and neody-
mium deposited by spray pyrolysis has not been
studied to date. The aim of the work presented
(Received January 17, 2018; accepted April 18, 2018;
published online May 3, 2018)
Journal of ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2018
2018 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society