Journal of Pest Science (2018) 91:751–759
Evaluation of Carifend
, an alpha‑cypermethrin‑coated polyester net,
for the control of Lasioderma serricorne and Ephestia elutella in stored
C. I. Rumbos
· M. Sakka
· S. Schaert
· T. Sterz
· J. W. Austin
· C. Bozoglou
· P. Klitsinaris
· C. G. Athanassiou
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published online: 10 January 2018
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
The use of insecticide-treated nets has lately attracted scientiﬁc interest for the management of mosquitoes and related species,
as well as for crop pest control and the protection of stored agricultural commodities. In our study, the eﬀect of Carifend
an alpha-cypermethrin-coated polyester net, on adults of the two most important stored-tobacco insect pests, Lasioderma
serricorne and Ephestia elutella, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays. Carifend
was applied to the bottom of plastic Petri
dishes, whereas an additional series of dishes with net material without insecticide was also prepared and served as control.
Twenty beetles or moths of mixed sex were placed in each dish. Insects were exposed to the substrates for 1, 5, 15, 30, 60,
90, 120 and 240 min and for 12 and 24 h. Immediate mortality and knockdown eﬀect were measured after each exposure.
Afterward, all surviving individuals were placed in untreated plastic dishes and delayed mortality, as well as percentage of
knocked down insects, were counted after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Immediate mortality was very low for both species tested, even
after 24 h of exposure. In contrast, immediate knockdown was high, especially for exposure intervals longer than 60 min.
After insect removal from dishes with Carifend
, the high knockdown percentages were gradually transformed in most cases
to delayed mortality. Based on our results, Carifend
can provide a satisfactory level of protection for stored tobacco against
these two major tobacco insect pests, at least at the conditions tested here.
Keywords Stored-product insects · Tobacco · Insecticide-coated net · Ephestia elutella · Lasioderma serricorne
The use of insecticide-treated nets gains increasing inter-
est for the protection of stored agricultural commodities.
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the
eﬀect of exposure to Carifend
on adults of Lasioderma
serricorne and Ephestia elutella.
For both species tested, mortality levels directly after
exposure were low even after 24 h of exposure, whereas
knockdown was high especially for exposures > 60 min.
As the post-exposure period increased, the insects
knocked down gradually transitioned to having a delayed
The global tobacco market, recently valued at more than
500 billion US dollars, suﬀers severe annual losses due
to insect pests that infest tobacco leaves during cur-
ing, handling and storage (Melzer and Martin 2016).
Tobacco, both in the form of cured leaves or as manufac-
tured tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, etc.), is usu-
ally infested by two major insect pest species, the tobacco
Communicated by M. Traugott.
* C. G. Athanassiou
Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology,
Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural
Environment, University of Thessaly, Phytokou Str.,
38446 Volos, Greece
BASF Crop Protection, BASF Plant Science, Speyerer Straße
2, 67117 Limburgerhof, Germany
BASF Corporation, Professional & Specialty Solutions, 26
Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3528, USA
BASF Hellas, Paradissou 2 and Kiﬁssias,
151 25 Maroussi, Athens, Greece