We compared the heat and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation results of Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate, obtained by plaque assay, direct quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), porcine gastric mucin magnetic beads (PGM-MBs) binding assay followed by RT-qPCR (PGM/PCR), and propidium monoazide (PMA) assay followed by RT-qPCR (PMA/PCR). Heat and HHP inactivation of a HuNoV genotype I.1 (GI.1) strain and a genotype II.4 (GII.4) strain was also evaluated using those molecular assays. Viruses were heat treated at 50–90 °C for 2 min and HHP treated at 100–550 MPa at initial temperatures of 4 or 21 °C for 2 min. For heat treatment, the three molecular methods significantly underestimated the inactivation of TV. It could be logically concluded that the PGM/PCR assay was better than the PMA/PCR and direct RT-qPCR assays in estimating the inactivation of HuNoV GI.1. The three molecular methods were comparable in estimating the heat inactivation of GII.4. For HHP treatment, both PGM/PCR and PMA/PCR assays were able to estimate inactivation of TV at ≤~2-log reduction levels, but significantly underestimated its inactivation at >~2-log reduction levels. The direct RT-qPCR assay was the worst method for estimating HHP inactivation of TV. It could be logically concluded that the PGM/PCR and PMA/PCR assays were comparable in estimating the HHP inactivation of GI.1 and both were significantly better than the direct RT-qPCR assay. Among the three molecular methods, the PGM/PCR assay was the best in estimating the HHP inactivation of GII.4. These results demonstrated that the PGM/PCR assay was probably the method of choice in estimating the inactivation of HuNoV GI.1 and GII.4 for heat and HHP treatments, but this method would likely result in underestimation of HuNoV inactivation.
Food and Environmental Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 25, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera