Evaluating local adaptation of a complex phenotype: reciprocal tests of pigmy rattlesnake venoms on treefrog prey

Evaluating local adaptation of a complex phenotype: reciprocal tests of pigmy rattlesnake venoms... Theory predicts that predator–prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator–prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator—the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)—and a co-occurring prey—the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella). We conducted toxicity trials using snake venom from two populations separated by 340 km tested on prey from sympatric and allopatric populations, resulting in data from four venom origin–frog origin combinations. We assessed venom effectiveness using two measures (frog mortality at 24 h and time to frog death) and then used regression analyses to look for a signal of local adaptation with either measure. We found evidence for local adaptation for one measure (time to death), but not the other (frog mortality). We argue that in this system, the time to death of a prey item is a more ecologically relevant measure of venom effectiveness than is frog mortality at 24 h. Our results document an example of local adaptation between two interacting vertebrates using a whole-organism assay and a local versus foreign criteria and provide evidence that population-level variation in snake venom is adaptive. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Oecologia Springer Journals

Evaluating local adaptation of a complex phenotype: reciprocal tests of pigmy rattlesnake venoms on treefrog prey

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/evaluating-local-adaptation-of-a-complex-phenotype-reciprocal-tests-of-pijKXjaFoR
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Subject
Life Sciences; Ecology; Plant Sciences; Hydrology/Water Resources
ISSN
0029-8549
eISSN
1432-1939
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00442-017-3882-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Theory predicts that predator–prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator–prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator—the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)—and a co-occurring prey—the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella). We conducted toxicity trials using snake venom from two populations separated by 340 km tested on prey from sympatric and allopatric populations, resulting in data from four venom origin–frog origin combinations. We assessed venom effectiveness using two measures (frog mortality at 24 h and time to frog death) and then used regression analyses to look for a signal of local adaptation with either measure. We found evidence for local adaptation for one measure (time to death), but not the other (frog mortality). We argue that in this system, the time to death of a prey item is a more ecologically relevant measure of venom effectiveness than is frog mortality at 24 h. Our results document an example of local adaptation between two interacting vertebrates using a whole-organism assay and a local versus foreign criteria and provide evidence that population-level variation in snake venom is adaptive.

Journal

OecologiaSpringer Journals

Published: May 17, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off