ISSN 1022-7954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 411–415. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2007.
L.) is one of
the most important crop; mainly used for human con-
sumption as a green vegetable and animal nutrition as
forage grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It pro-
duced about 100 t in Turkey and 40.01% of production
with 40 026 t is provided from Samsun province in the
region . Extensive use of cultivation of kale in the
Black Sea region created a great number of populations
for a long time. The collection and characterization of
genetic resources in the Black Sea region was started in
2001 from the observations and 22 types were evalu-
ated as superior types using weighting based ranking
method . The accessions of 117 kale types were
taken for conservation as breeding materials at Turkey
Seed Banks in Izmir-Menemen.
Analysis of randomly ampliﬁed polymorphic DNA
markers (RAPD) provides a useful tool for variety iden-
tiﬁcation , gene bank management , taxonomic
studies  and to detect genetic variation among
closely related populations [6–8]. Some studies [9–11]
demonstrated the utility of RAPD markers for discrim-
inating individual genotypes and for the establishing
genetic relationships among
and its wild
relatives. A collection of
was evaluated using RAPD markers to show genetic
variation among collard cultivars and landraces in
United States .
Kale production in the regions suffers from the lack
of cultivars and, the relationships between populations
are not known. In this study, an analysis of the genetic
relationships among selected kale (
L.) types collected from different areas of the
Black Sea region of Turkey is reported.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material and DNA isolation.
A total of 20 kale
populations were used for the present study selected
from 127 populations for fresh consumption of its
leaves by agronomic and morphologic characteristics
as superior types using weight-based ranking method
collected from different ecogeographical areas in this
Estimation of Genetic Diversity Among Turkish Kale
Using RAPD Markers*
A. Okumus and A. Balkaya
Biometry–Genetics Unit, Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Ondokuz Mayis University,
Samsun, 55139 Turkey; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received January 12, 2006
—Twenty populations of kale (
L.) selected from 127 populations in
terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the
Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly ampliﬁed polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The seven primers selected from 100 decamers
used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard’s genetic distances were calculated
and dendrogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendrogram obtained was classiﬁed into
three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering as compared to morpholog-
ical characters such as the number of leaves, intentation of the leaf margin, leaf and midrib color, and thickness
of midrib, than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same
group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6, and OR37 accessions, respectively.
* The text was submitted by the authors in English.
28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44
Map of Turkey with the geographic distribution of
the accessions used in the present study.