In stomata guard cells of sugar beet, variation in the number of chloroplasts was studied in successive generations: (1) hybrid generation; (2) generation yielded by uniparental apozygotic seed reproduction; (3) generation obtained after seed treatment with a colchicine solution; (4) generation obtained after seed treatment with 5-azacytidine. As compared to hybrid generation, uniparental seed reproduction increases the average number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells (from 13.5 to 15.0) and decreases distribution variance of this trait by a factor of 3 to 4. Colchicine increases both average number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells (from 13.5 to 18.2) and distribution variance (about twice). 5-Azacytindine reduces the number of chloroplasts in cells (from 15.0 to 12.9) but enhances distribution variance (about 1.5 times). Variation in the number of chromosomes in stomata cells is related to myxoploidy in meristem tissue, on the one hand, and to the rate of cell division, on the other. Uniparental seed reproduction is suggested to enhance the number of organelles per cell due to high myxoploidy in cell populations. Colchicine blocks spindle division and sharply increases the level of myxoploidy in cell populations and the number of organelles per cell. 5-Azacytidine hypomethylates chromosome DNA, increases the rate of cell divisions, and reduces the number of organelles per cell. The described changes in the number of chloroplasts are inherited in cell lineage (“cell hereditary memory”) and successive sporophyte generations.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 20, 2004
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