Keywords Nanocellulose Cellulose nanoﬁber et al. 2015), and ﬁlter membranes (Karim et al. 2016), Cellulosic ethanol Bioreﬁnery Enzymatic among others (Duran et al. 2012). hydrolysis Scale-up parameters Methods currently used to obtain CNF include mechanical procedures such as grinding (Visanko et al. 2017; Wang et al. 2012) and high pressure homogenization (Dufresne et al. 2000), as well as Introduction ultrasound-based processes (Cui et al. 2016). Enzyme- assisted processes have also been employed to obtain The bioreﬁnery concept integrates the conversion of CNF, in combination with a mechanical disintegration lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and other high- or other process step (Campos et al. 2013; Henriksson value materials, and can potentially contribute to et al. 2007; Paakko et al. 2007; Zhu et al. 2011). reducing dependence on fossil-based fuels and prod- Recent work showed that CNF could be obtained ucts (Budzianowski 2017; Jorgensen and Pinelo using a biochemical pathway alone, with optimization 2017). The production of cellulosic or second gener- of operational conditions such as the enzyme and ation (2G) ethanol associated with a high-value solids loadings, the reaction time, and temperature product such as nanocellulose is a promising strategy (Bondancia et al. 2017). The advantage
Cellulose – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
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