Curr Treat Options Infect Dis (2018) 10:129–142
Treatment and Prevention of Hospital Infections (D Vilar-Compte, Section Editor)
Enterococci as Increasing
Bacteria in Hospitals: Why Are
Infection Control Measures
Challenging for This Bacteria?
Rayo Morfin-Otero, MD
Hector R. Perez-Gomez, MD
Esteban Gonzalez-Diaz, MD
Sergio Esparza-Ahumada, MD
Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega, MD
Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, “Fray Antonio Alcalde”, Guadalajara, Mexico
Instituto de Patología Infecciosa y Experimental, Centro Universitario de
Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico
Published online: 20 April 2018
* Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Treatment and Prevention of
Control of Enterococcus in hospitals
Purpose of the review Enterococci are emerging threatening multidrug-resistant bacteria.
Enterococcus faecium is a common pathogen associated with severe hospital-acquired
infections. The goal of this report is to analyze the evolution of this nosocomial pathogen
and study the state of adequate infection control measures.
Recent findings Evolution over millions of years has allowed enterococci to develop into a
persistent hospital pathogen, an environment where it thrives. Vancomycin-resistant
enterococci (VRE) continues to obtain antibiotic resistance elements. Enterococci assem-
ble multiple virulence factors. VRE intestinal colonization can promote nosocomial infec-
tions. New rapid PCR laboratory tests with high sensitivity and specificity allows for
screening of Enterococci in asyptomatic carriers.
Summary The efficient clonal dissemination of VRE has led to a potential multidrug-
resistant bacteria that is a current and future threat to hospitals worldwide. The thera-
peutic options are few and decreasing. Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention
is critical in our fight against enterococci.