Solutions of sucrose, glucose, raffinose, and stachyose were fed via the petiole to detached leaves of plant species known to transfer sugars during photosynthesis into the phloem using either the apoplastic or the symplastic pathway of phloem loading. Symplastic phloem loaders, which translocate raffinose-type oligosaccharides and sucrose in the phloem, and apoplastic plants, translocating exclusively sucrose, were selected for this study. As the sugars arrived with the transpiration stream in the leaf blade within little more than a minute, dark respiration increased. Almost simultaneously, fluorescence of a potential-indicating dye, which had been infiltrated into the leaves, indicated membrane depolarization. Another fluorescent dye used to record the apoplastic pH revealed apoplastic alkalinization that occurred with a slight lag phase after respiration and membrane depolarization responses. Occasionally, alkalinization was preceded by transient apoplastic acidification. Whereas membrane depolarization and apoplastic acidification are interpreted as initial responses of the proton motive force across the plasma membrane to the advent of sugars in the leaf apoplast, the following apoplastic alkalinization showed that sugars were taken up from the apoplast into the symplast in cotransport with protons. This was true not only for glucose and sucrose, but also for raffinose and stachyose. Similar observations were made for sugar uptake not only in leaves of plants known to export sugars by symplastic phloem loading but also of plants using the apoplastic pathway. Increased respiration during sugar uptake revealed tight coupling between respiratory ATP production and ATP consumption by proton-translocating ATPase of the plasma membrane, which exports protons into the apoplast, thereby compensating for the proton loss in the apoplast when protons are transported together with sugars into the symplast. The extent of stimulation of respiration by sugars indicated that sugar uptake was not limited to phloem tissue. Ratios of the extra CO2 released during sugar uptake to the amounts of sugars taken up were variable, but lowest values were lower than 0.2. When a ratio of 0.2 is taken as a basis to calculate rates of sugar uptake from observed maxima of sugar-dependent increases in respiration, rates of sugar uptake approached 350 nmol/(m2 leaf surface s). Sugar uptake rates were half-saturated at sugar concentrations in the feeding solutions of about 10–25 mM indicating a low in vivo affinity of sugar uptake systems for sugars.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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