SCIeNtIfIC REPORTS | 7: 16765 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-17055-0
Emergence of BA9 genotype of
human respiratory syncytial virus
subgroup B in China from 2006 to
, Huiling Wang
, Jing Shi
, Aili Cui
, Yanzhi Huang
, Liwei Sun
, Xingyu Xiang
, Pengbo Yu
, Zifeng Yang
, Qi Li
, Teresa I. Ng
, Yan Zhang
, Rongbo Zhang
A study was conducted to investigate the circulation of HRSV subgroup B (HRSVB) in China in
recent years. HRSVB sequences from 365 samples collected in 1991, 2004 and 2008–2014 in China,
together with 332 Chinese HRSVB sequences obtained from GenBank were analyzed to determine the
geographic and yearly distribution of HRSVB. Phylogenetic analysis revealed these HRSVB sequences
clustered into 4 genotypes with dierent frequencies: BA (83%), CB1 (11%), SAB (3.0%) and GB3 (0.7%).
Between 2005 and 2013, there was a co-circulation of BA and non-BA genotypes in China. Genotypes
BA9 and BA10 were two of the main BA genotypes detected in this study. Genotype BA9 was rst
detected in China in 2006 and became the predominant HRSVB genotype circulating in China from
2008 to 2014. Three dierent lineages were detected for both genotypes BA9 and BA10. Time to the
most recent common ancestor for genotypes BA9 and BA10 was estimated for years 1997 and 1996,
respectively. Results of this study not only contribute to the understanding of the circulation pattern,
but also the phylogenetic pattern and evolution of HRSVB in China from 1991 to 2014.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI)
worldwide in infants and young children (<5 years of age), as well as in the elderly and patients who are immuno-
. In China, among 28,369 patients with ALRTI from 81 sentinel hospitals in 22 provinces, HRSV
was the most frequently detected virus (9.9%) and was also the most common etiology of ALRTI in children
<2 years of age in China
HRSV is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and the Pneumovirinae subfamily. e HRSV virion con-
sists of a non-segmented, single-strand negative RNA genome packaged in a lipid envelope. e genome of HRSV
is about 15.2 kb in length and encodes 11 proteins: NS1, NS2, N, P, M, SH, G, F, M2-1, M2-2, and L. e F and G
proteins are the most important viral transmembrane surface glycoproteins. e F protein is highly conserved
and the G protein is highly variable. According to the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies against surface gly-
coproteins, HRSV strains have been classied as subgroup A (HRSVA) or subgroup B (HRSVB)
. To date, based
on the sequence of the second hypervariable region (HVR2) of the G protein, HRSVA has been divided into 14
WHO WPRO Regional Reference Measles/Rubella Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of
Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention,
Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
Lu Juan Community Health Center of Daxing region, Beijing, People’s Republic
Jilin Children’s Medical Center, Children’s Hospital of Changchun, Changchun, People’s Republic of China.
Hunan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Changsha, People’s Republic of China.
for Disease Control and Prevention, Xian, People’s Republic of China.
Shaanxi Provincial Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, Xian, People’s Republic of China.
State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical
Research Center for Respiratory Disease, First Aliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou,
People’s Republic of China.
Hebei Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang, People’s
Republic of China.
AbbVie, Inc, North Chicago, IL, USA.
Medical College, Anhui University of Science & Technology,
Huainan, People’s Republic of China. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to Y.Z. (email:
email@example.com) or R.Z. (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) or W.X. (email: email@example.com)
Received: 5 June 2017
Accepted: 21 November 2017
Published: xx xx xxxx