HERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) encodes the Kv11.1 protein α-subunit that underlies the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (I Kr) in the heart. Alterations in the functional properties or membrane incorporation of HERG channels, either by genetic mutations or by administration of drugs, play major roles in the development of life-threatening torsades de pointes cardiac arrhythmias. Visualization of ion channel localization is facilitated by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tagging, but this process can alter their properties. The aim of the present study was to characterize the electrophysiological properties and the cellular localization of HERG channels in which EGFP was tagged either to the C terminus (HERG/EGFP) or to the N terminus (EGFP/HERG). These fusion constructs were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration and a confocal laser scanning microscope with primary anti-HERG antibodies and fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies were used. For EGFP/HERG channels the deactivation kinetics were faster and the peak tail current density was reduced when compared to both wild-type HERG channels and HERG/EGFP channels. Laser scanning microscopic studies showed that both fusion proteins were localized in the cytoplasm and on discrete microdomains in the plasma membrane. The extent of labeling with anti-HERG antibodies of HEK 293 cells expressing EGFP/HERG channels was less when compared to HERG/EGFP channels. In conclusion, both electrophysiological and immunocytochemical studies showed that EGFP/HERG channels themselves have a protein trafficking defect. HERG/EGFP channels have similar properties as untagged HERG channels and, thus, might be especially useful for fluorescence microscopy studies.
The Journal of Membrane Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 15, 2008
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera