ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 2074−2077. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © V.N. Tseluikin, Yu.Yu. Kupriyanov,
2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1776−1779.
Electrodeposition of Nickel-Based Composite Coatings
in the Reversible Mode
V. N. Tseluikin and Yu. Yu. Kupriyanov
Engels Institute of Technology, Branch of Gagarin State Technical University,
pl. Svobody 17, Engels, Saratov oblast, 413100 Russia
Received October 28, 2015
Abstract—Composite electrochemical coatings based on nickel modiﬁ ed with carbon nanotubes were deposited
in the reversible mode. The structure and functional properties of these coatings were studied. Introduction of
carbon nanotubes into sulfamate nickel-plating electrolyte leads to a decrease in the friction coefﬁ cient and to
enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the forming coatings.
Nickel plating is one of the most widely used
electroplating processes. Nickel-based coatings are used
for enhancement of the wear and corrosion resistance of
steel items . An efﬁ cient way to improve the operation
properties of electroplated nickel is incorporation of
dispersed particles of different nature into the coating.
For this purposes, composite electrochemical coatings
(CECs) are deposited from suspension electrolytes
[2–4]. The CEC properties are largely determined by
the dispersed phase. Composite coatings modiﬁ ed
with various kinds of nanoparticles have been actively
studied in the past decade . Carbon nanotubes
(CNTs), i.e., graphene planes rolled into cylinders from
one to several tens of nanometers in diameter, are a
promising nanomaterial . Studies of chromium–CNT
[7, 8] and zinc–CNT [9, 10] CECs have shown that the
carbon nanotubes improve the functional properties of
electrolytic deposits. Tkachev et al.  reported data
on the structure and properties of composite nickel–CEC
coatings deposited from a sulfate–chloride electrolyte.
However, data on the joint deposition of nickel with
CNT particles from sulfamate solutions are lacking.
The goal of this study is deposition of nickel–CNT
composite coatings from a sulfamate electrolyte in the
reversible mode and evaluation of their tribological
behavior and protective power. Nonstationary electrolysis
conditions (in particular, reversion) favor the formation
of coatings with higher content of nanoparticles and
their uniform distribution in the deposit.
Nickel-based composite electrochemical coatings
were prepared from an electrolyte of the following
composition, g L
O 350, NaCl 12,
COONa 25, sodium dodecyl sulfate 1, and carbon
nanotubes 0.05. The coatings were deposited onto a
steel support (steel 45) at 45°С with continuous stirring
of the electrolyte. Pure nickel deposits were prepared
from the electrolyte of the above composition without
dispersed phase. The adhesion of the coatings was eval-
uated by the cross-cut method [GOST (State Standard)
The CNTs were prepared by pyrolysis of hydrocar-
bons in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The CNTs are
hollow ﬁ bers consisting of graphene layers of fullerene-
like structure, from 10 to 60 nm in diameter .
The nickel-based coatings were electroplated in
the reversing mode at the following current densities:
= 10, i
= 1.5 A dm
. The ratios of the cathodic and
anodic periods were as follows (s): 10 : 1, 12 : 1, 14 : 1,
and 16 : 1.
The electrochemical measurements were performed
with a P-30S pulse potentiostat. The potentials were set