Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 11, pp. 2005−2007.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © V.N. Tseluikin, E.A. Vasilenko, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 11, pp. 1920−1922.
Electrodeposition and Properties
of Composite Coatings Based on Nickel
V. N. Tseluikin and E. A. Vasilenko
Engels Technological Institute (Branch of Saratov State Technical University), Engels, Russia
Received October 4, 2010
Abstract—Composite electrochemical platings based on nickel and containing graphite bisulfate as a dispersed
phase were obtained. Their electrodeposition and tribological characteristics were studied and compared with
those of electrolytic nickel deposits free from a disperse phase.
Composite electrochemical platings (CEPs) have
received acceptance owing to the fact that they improve
operation properties of metal surfaces (hardness, wear
hardness, and corrosion resistance). Unlike classical elec-
trochemical platings, CEPs are obtained with the use of
electrolytes-suspensions containing dispersion particles
of various sizes and types [1–4].
The efficiency of CEP application in many respects
is defined by the nature of a dispersed phase. Graphite
and its derivatives are of interest as dispersed materi-
als for composite coatings [4–7]. Graphite has a lay-
ered structure. Interstitial graphite compounds (IGC)
are obtained by penetration of various molecules or
ions in the interlayer space of their crystal lattice
. The reaction of graphite with sulfuric acid in the
presence of strong oxidizing agents yields graphite
bisulfate with a composition described by the formula
There are chemical and electrochemical methods of
the IGC synthesis . The chemical method is techno-
logically simple, but the resulting product is inhomoge-
neous. The electrochemical synthesis allows obtaining
high-purity IGC with a speciﬁ ed composition.
The aim of the present work was to obtain CEPs on
the basis of nickel with graphite bisulfate and to study the
process of their precipitation and tribological properties of
forming coatings. In the work we used graphite bisulfate
synthesized by the electrochemical method.
Composite electrochemical platings based on
nickel-graphite bisulfate were precipitated from an elec-
trolyte of the composition (g l
O, 40; CH
COONa, 30; and graphite bisulfate
10. Particle sizes of the disperse phase were up to 10 μm.
Graphite bisulfate was synthesized by the anodic
oxidation of dispersed powder graphite GSM-1 in the po-
tentiostat regime at room temperature. Dispersed graphite
served as a working electrode, and 12Kh18N10Т steel
was a counter electrode. A 5.32 M solution of H
(special-purity grade) served as an electrolyte. Graphite
particles were tightened to a current lead by a sliding pis-
ton, which moved during the interstitial reaction, increas-
ing the volume of a suspension electrode. It allowed us
to hold a constant pressure of tightening graphite during
the whole process.
Electrodeposition of CEPs was carried out on a
steel base (steel 45) at room temperature with perma-
nent stirring of a solution. Pure nickel was deposited
from the electrolyte of the above composition without
adding graphite bisulfate. Adhesion of the resulting
coatings was estimated by applying a net of scores
Sliding friction coefﬁ cient f of electrodeposited coat-
ings was determined according to the scheme given in
 and was calculated by the formula