Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 8, pp. 1390−1395.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text
M.R. Vysotskaya, G.V. Maslova, V.A. Petrova, L.A. Nud’ga, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 8,
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Crustacean shells are the major source of chitin today.
Another large-tonnage source of chitin, fungi, for a long
time was beyond researchers’ attention, although chitin
was found for the ﬁ rst time speciﬁ cally in fungi in the
beginning of the XIX century . Wide occurrence of
fungi in the nature and their high productivity make this
source of chitin commercially signiﬁ cant, especially when
using the mycelium of fungi applied in biotechnological
processes for preparing organic acids, enzymes, and
antibiotics. The location of these productions in industrial
centers and large-tonnage production scale gave rise to the
problem of utilization of mycelial wastes, and the stability
of process conditions ensures standard characteristics of
these wastes. These biotechnologies use lower fungi of
the genera Allomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillum, Mucor,
Phicomyces, etc. The most economically proﬁ table way
of mycelial waste utilization is their use for treating
wastewater and concentrating nuclear wastes.
Along with mycelial fungi, of commercial interest is
the large group of higher fungi (Basidiomycota) whose
chitin content reaches 50 and even 65%, because they
can be cultivated on wastes from wood processing, pulp-
and-paper, and food industries. The fruiting bodies of
Basidiomycota, both growing under natural conditions
and cultivated in greenhouses, also contain chitin in
an amount of 4–11% of dry weight of the fungal mass
Chitin is present in cell walls of fungi, where it is
bound with other polysaccharides, lipids, proteins,
and microelements by ionic or hydrogen bonds. These
complexes are more stable and speciﬁ c than natural protein
complexes of chitin in shells of invertebrates or in insect
cuticles. Whereas proteins, lipids, and microelements
can be relatively readily removed from the fungal mass
by sequential extraction with organic solvents, dilute
alkalis, and acids, it is impossible to separate chitin from
the glucan moiety without polysaccharide degradation.
Therefore, this component of the fungal mass was termed
chitin–glucan ocmplex (CGC) and is being studied as
a single whole.
It is known that CGC is not an individual substance.
The ratio between chitin and glucan varies depending not
only on the source but also on the conditions of cultivating
the same fungus species. Nevertheless, more and more
evidence appears for the covalent bonding between chitin
and glucan, i.e., CGC cannot be considered as a mixture of
two polysaccharides retained by labile hydrogen or ionic
bonds. Most probably, CGC is a branched polysaccharide
of variable composition in which the backbone is formed
by chitin and pendant chains, by glucan (if the chitin
Electrochemical Recovery of Chitin–Glucan Complex
from Pleurotus ostreatus Basidial Fungus and Properties
of the Product
M. R. Vysotskaya
, G. V. Maslova
, V. A. Petrova
, and L. A. Nud’ga
Research and Design Institute of Fleet Development, St. Petersburg, Russia
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received May 29, 2008
Abstract—The chitin–glucan complex was recovered by an electrochemical procedure from the Pleurotus
Ostreatus fungal mass. The chemical composition of the complex was determined, and its IR spectra were
analyzed. The supramolecular organization of the isolated complex was determined by X-ray structural analysis.
The sorption power of the complex toward Cu
ions was evaluated.