ELASTIC REFRACTORY MATERIALS
S. A. Suvorov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 40 – 46, July, 2007.
Original article submitted April 10, 2007.
The author presents regression dependences and functional properties of composite organomineral elastic re
fractory materials (ERM) in the form of products, their application, and efficiency of their use.
Elastic refractory materials (ERM) are understood as ma
terials formed as products of different size, shapes, and sec
tions, which possess elastic properties in their finished form.
Elastic refractory materials are produced by preparing
organomineral compositions of polymers and nonmetallic
high-temperature oxides, their compounds and mixtures with
additives. A polymer acts as a binder to about 400 – 600°C
and the mineral matrix serves as a binder at high tempera-
tures . Strength at high temperatures is ensured by the
mineral matrix. Data on the composition, technology, and ap-
plication of these materials are mainly concentrated in the
patent literature [2 – 7].
It should be noted that polymer organic materials are not
resistant to an oxidizing atmosphere [8, 9]. Thermal and oxi-
dizing destruction of a polymer binder in heating produces to
a loss of elastic properties in the composite. Therefore, the
idea was to use elastic polymer as a temporary binder facili
tating, due to its deformation properties, the formation of
thin sheets and complex-shape articles [10 – 12]. The expe
rience of using products made of composites of refractory
with an elastic polymer in metallurgy, foundry, and chemical
industry is reported in [12 – 25]. The universality of ERM is
related to the fact that their properties are formed with a view
to particular applications and destinations, such as slag-resis
tant joint material for welding or separation of refractory
lining elements, including the purpose of decreasing or
eliminating thermals stresses in such lining; high-tempera
ture seals for steel-casting and foundry equipment, for refrac
tory structural units, casting mold units, etc.
The main requirements on elastic refractory materials is
ensuring long-term service of the unit, structure, or lining
and high sealing reliability preventing the breakout of metal
and slag and emergency situations. Reliable sealing is pos
sible when the refractory material has elastic properties nec
essary for sealing uneven and rough surfaces of contiguous
elements of steel-casting equipment.
Whereas joints between refractory blocks need to be
welded, in steel casting, in addition to reliable sealing of the
joints between the equipment parts, these parts need to be
freely detachable from the ERM inserts, for instance, a pro-
tective pipe needs to be separated from the nonswirl nozzle
of a teeming ladle and the submersible nozzle of a continu-
ous steel-casting machine needs to be separated from the
nonswirl nozzle of the tundish ladle.
Physicomechanical and technical properties of elastic
refractory materials. Research has established that the
strength and elastic properties of ERM composites depend on
the type and content of the elastic binder (Fig. 1). The extre
mal dependence of tensile strength and porosity of a sheet
ERM observed with the binder content of 25.0 – 30.0 vol.%
is determined by the optimal thickness of the polymer
interlayer separating the refractory filler particles. An im
proved distribution of caoutchouc and refractory filler in using
the latex technology shifts the strength peak toward a higher
concentration of the filler (77 – 78 vol.%).
ELMs, similar to caoutchouc, experience natural aging,
which is manifested in their increasing strength and deterio
rating flexibility and elasticity of the composites. With re
spect to relative strength increase under storage, the
periclase-based ERMs are ranked in the following order de
pending on the storage period and the type of caoutchouc:
SKI-3 < SKI-30 < butyl caotchouc < SKI40 < Nairite A. Based
on the increasing relative elongation, the ERMs have a dif
ferent sequence: butyl caoutchouc < SKI-40 < SKI-30 <
< SKI-3 < Nairite A. The especially perceptible strength
variation in ERM under storage is observed in using polar
caoutchouc. The reaction between the elastomer and the re
fractory filler is accompanied by structuring of caoutchouc
due to the restricted mobility of the segments of its macro
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 3, 2007
1083-4877/07/4803-0202 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute (Technical Univer