REFRACTORIES IN HEAT UNITS
EFFICIENT USE OF SHS MATERIALS ON HIGH-TEMPERATURE
EQUIPMENT IN NONFERROUS METALLURGY
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.2,pp.4–7,February, 2012.
Original article submitted September 15, 2011.
Results obtained from scientific studies and design work were used to determine the composition and areas of
application of new SHS materials and build a semi-commercial unit for flame guniting. The materials were
tested in commercial trials involving the repair of a DSP-3 electric furnace, a Waelz furnace, and horizontal
converters at the Rezhsk Nickel Plant, Ufaley Nickel Combine, and Ust-Kamenogorsk Lead-Zinc Combine.
The test results were positive. Introduction of the SHS materials is making it possible to increase the utiliza
tion factor of furnaces by a factor of2–4.
Keywords: self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, exothermic reaction, lining mortar, gunite mix,
flame guniting, tuyere zone, slag zone, tap-hole products.
Having durable linings in metallurgical furnaces ensures
a long time between repairs to the lining, which in turn is the
most important factor in making metallurgical operations
more cost-effective by reducing labor costs and refractories
consumption per ton of metal product. Unfortunately, the
amount of Russian-made refractories required to make 1 ton
of steel remains high and is roughly four times as great as in
the developed nations: Japan, the U. S., Germany, Austria,
etc. This situation could be improved if outdated technolo
gies involving furnace firing or sintering at high tempera
tures were to be replaced by the latest-generation technolo
gies - by the production of promising metallurgical-grade
refractories materials through the use of technological com
bustion, or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis
(SHS) [1, 2].
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis is a
physico-chemical process that involves synthesizing indus
trial-grade refractories (powders, shaped refractories, mor
tars, and coatings) on the basis of the exothermic reaction of
two or more components in the combustion regime. The pro
cess is carried out through local or space heating to tempera
tures corresponding to the threshold at which oxidation-re
duction reactions are initiated in the synthesis zone. The tem
perature at which SHS is initiated is specific to each system
and depends on the physico-chemical nature of its compo-
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis can now be
regarded as a substantive field of technology that stands on
its own. The use of SHS can solve a whole range of prob-
lems, the most important being:
– the formation of valuable solid chemical compounds
and materials made from them;
– the creation of different refractory products, including
shaped refractories and refractories that have a prescribed
form, dimensions, and physical structure and service proper
ties of the requisite quality;
– modification of the working surfaces of products,
structures, and equipment that are made by conventional
technologies with the use of standard refractories;
– the use of mortars and repair-reconditioning opera
tions (flame guniting).
To obtain refractories by SHS, it is best to use SHS sys
tems that include a reducing stage. Among such systems are
those that employ thermite compositions. Reactions of the
thermite type have the form:
+ 2Cr + 462 kJ (110 kcal),
+ 2Fe + 756 kJ (180 kcal),
+ Mg = 3MgO + 2Cr + 672 kJ (160 kcal).
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 1, May, 2012
1083-4877/12/05301-0001 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.