REFRACTORIES IN HEATING UNITS
EFFICIENT USE OF A COMBINATION LINING
IN CONVERTERS EMPLOYED IN COPPER-NICKEL PRODUCTION
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.8,pp.3–6,August, 2015.
Original article submitted February 26, 2015.
The reasons for the low durability of converter linings and the properties of wear- and heat-resistant chro
mite-periclase refractories of grade KhPT are studied. A technology has been developed and introduced at the
combine “Magnezit” for making chromite-periclase refractories based on fused powders. Lining methods
based on the installation of KhPT and PKhP products in “staggered” and “zebra” patterns have also been de
veloped and introduced at nine copper-nickel combines. The durability of the linings has been increased by 15
to 49% through use of the staggered scheme and by up to 82.5% with the use of the zebra scheme.
Keywords: chromite-periclase refractory, fused grain, chemical reaction, heat resistance, wear rate.
The production of refractories in Russia is in decline.
Data provided by the association “Ogneuporprom” (for six
specialized plants and the refractory shops at the Magni-
togorsk Metallurgical Combine and Nizhniy Tagil Metallur-
gical Combine) and Rosstat RF (Russian Federal Statistics
Service) indicates that refractory production fell 55% from
2011 to 2012. Russian refractory producers are losing more
than 1.5 billion rubles a year due to imports. This situation
could lead to collapse of the refractories industry in this
country and make its metallurgical industry and military
completely dependent on the importation of refractory prod
The goals of this investigation are to analyze the reasons
for the short service life of the linings of copper-nickel con
verters, study the mechanism of their wear, and develop an
efficient design for the region of the lining above the tuyeres
with the use of highly durable modern refractory products.
Both sintered and fused-grain refractories will be used, these
materials being resistant to chemicals, heat, and wear. The
Kirovograd Copper-Smelting Combine (KMK), Krasno
uralsk Copper-Smelting Combine (KrMK), and Karabash
Copper-Smelting Combine (KaMK) have been working on
increasing the service life of converter linings and the use of
combination linings. Developing technologies to make com
petitive high-durability refractory products is very important,
particularly in order to make linings for furnaces and other
high-temperature equipment whose operation is based on the
latest technologies — units such as fluidized-bed furnaces,
Kivtset-TsS furnaces, horizontal converters, and electric fur-
Unfortunately, the conclusions reached in a number of
publications indicate that the amount of refractories con
sumed in the production of 1 ton of steel in Russia remains
quite high compared to the consumption figures in the indus
trially developed nations: Japan, the U. S., Germany, Austria,
The increases that have occurred in the rates of the pro
duction processes being carried out in nonferrous metallurgy
and the need to process ores and concentrates of increasingly
poor quality are making it necessary to lengthen the cam
paign of the furnaces and other high-temperature equipment,
which means that the service life of the lining must also be
increased. The durability of the lining can be improved by
using refractories that are more resistant to the slags and
melts formed in nonferrous metallurgy and by employing
more efficient combination-type lining schemes.
For several years we have been involved in attempts to
increase the durability of the refractory linings of the con
verters used in the production of copper and nickel. Labora
tory studies  have shown that the refractories which are
most resistant to the slag formed in copper-nickel smelting
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 56, No. 4, November, 2015
1083-4877/15/05604-0323 © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.