ISSN 1068-798X, Russian Engineering Research, 2017, Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 655–659. © Allerton Press, Inc., 2017.
Original Russian Text © Yu.V. Dimov, D.B. Podashev, 2017, published in STIN, 2017, No. 2, pp. 36–40.
Efficient Machining by Elastic Abrasive Wheels
Yu. V. Dimov* and D. B. Podashev**
Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia
Abstract—Two criteria are considered for assessing the machining efficiency of elastic abrasive wheels: the
ratio of the material removed to the wheel wear; and the ratio of the material removed to the cost of the tool’s
worn section. Empirical formulas are presented for the material removed, the wear rate of the wheels, and the
roughness of the machined surface. The effectiveness of machining is determined as a function of the tool
deformation and the cutting speed. Recommendations are made regarding the selection of machining param-
eters when using elastic abrasive wheels.
Keywords: elastic wheel, Scotch-Brite™, material removed, tool wear, attainable roughness, machining effi-
ciency, machining conditions
Elastic abrasive wheels and brushes are used in fin-
ishing for various purposes: for example, to ensure the
required roughness of the machined surface, to pre-
pare for paint application, to remove flash, to round
sharp edges, and as a preliminary to polishing. They
may be used on various metals and alloys, plastic,
wood, glass, ceramics, and stone.
Grinding by elastic tools differs in specific ways
from grinding by rigid tools. Such tools are not estab-
lished at a particular grinding depth. The conditions
necessary for the operation of individual grains are
created by preliminary loading. That deforms the tool,
which remains deformed throughout machining.
The attachment of abrasive grains to an elastic
binder fundamentally changes the tool–workpiece
interaction, as follows.
(1) The impact of the grain on the material is cush-
ioned, with corresponding increase in tool life.
(2) The thermal stress is reduced, with the com-
plete elimination of scorching.
(3) Microcracking of brittle surface layers is elimi-
(4) The number of grains that operate simultane-
ously is increased.
(5) The duration of the interaction between the
abrasive grain and the machined surface is increased.
Overall, these factors improve the quality of the
Globally, a broad range of abrasive and nonabra-
sive elastic finishing tools are produced. Their design
was analyzed in .
By intensifying the machining conditions—
increasing the wheel deformation, the cutting speed,
and the supply—the machining efficiency and the pro-
ductivity may be improved. However, that will neces-
sarily increase the tool wear and consequently the tool
costs. Therefore, in selecting effective elastic abrasive
wheels and machining conditions, we must pay atten-
tion to the rate of the rate at which material is removed
and the rate of tool wear.
We may assess the machining efficiency of elastic
abrasive wheels on the basis of two criteria:
(1) the ratio of the material removed to the wheel
(2) the ratio of the material removed to the cost of
the tool’s worn section: E
Here q is the rate at which material is removed,
mm/min m; I is the wear rate of the wheel, mm/min m;
and C is the cost of the worn section of the wheel, rub.
With increase in E
, the machining effi-
ciency will increase.
REMOVAL OF MATERIAL
We investigate elastic wheels produced from
Scotch-Brite™ abrasive by 3M (Minnesota Mining
and Manufacturing Company). This material consists
of synthetic fibers woven into a three-dimensional
nonfabric structure, throughout which abrasive grains
are uniformly distributed.
Table 1 presents the parameters of the elastic abra-
sive wheels employed.