EFFICIENT CARBON-CONTAINING LININGS
FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE EQUIPMENT IN NONFERROUS METALLURGY
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 43 – 46, April, 2013.
Original article submitted February 4, 2013.
The influence of carbon materials on the physico-mechanical properties of refractories is studied, methods of
impregnating refractories possessing a magnesian composition with carbon materials are developed, tech
niques of protecting carbon materials against oxidation are investigated, and zones of lining in which the use
of carbon materials would be efficient are determined. Lining with the use of carbon materials are tested and
introduced into plants in the nonferrous metallurgy industry. A technology for the fabrication of periclase-car
bonaceous refractories and compound masonry and for impregnation of articles with pitch coke are developed
from the results of the study. Carbon-containing refractories and coatings have undergone industrial testing at
a number of enterprises and have been introduced in reverberatory, ore-smelting, and rotary kilns and in hori
zontal converters. The use of carbon-containing refractories and coatings in the lining of equipment in the
nonferrous metallurgy industry will increase the operating period of the equipment by 30 to 200%.
Keywords: carbon-containing refractory, compound lining, sliding layer, periclase, periclase-chromite, rotary
kiln, ore-smelting kiln
Carbon has long been the most important of all
refractories as a consequence of fact that it exhibits the high-
est resistance to slag and metal as well as thermal stability at
elevated service temperatures. In view of the fact that around
70% of existing refractories wear down as a result of slag
corrosion, carbon-containing and carbon refractories have
been developed to the greatest extent simply because they
are the most abrasive resistant of all refractories. Oxygen is
the basic reagent that corrodes refractories in the course of
service. Prevention of oxidization of refractories through the
development of anti-oxidant processes is the basis for in
creasing the wear resistance of the new generation of
periclase-carbonaceous refractories. Carbonization of
refractories constitutes a combination of two interrelated
processes: carburization, or the introduction of carbon into
refractories in the course of manufacture, and stabilization of
carbon, or preventing the release of carbon from a refractory
in the course of service. Therefore, processes of carburiza
tion and stabilization of carbon in magnesian refractories de
pend chiefly on the technological parameters of their manu
facture, and next by the service conditions of the refractories.
Carbon is added to magnesian refractories basically in
two forms, separately or in combination:
– in solid form, through the action of electrodes, in the
form of coke, pitch, wastes from graphitization, carbides,
graphite, phenol powder-forming binder, carbon fibers, etc.
Phenol powder-forming binder and graphite are the best
– in liquid form, as technical-grade liquid lignosulfo
nate, different resins (coal-tar, phenolic, furan, and synthetic
resins), bitumen, tar, etc.
We carried out studies with the goal of developing a
technology for the production of periclase-carbonaceous
refractories that takes into account the service conditions of
linings in equipment used in the nonferrous metallurgy in
dustry. The influence of different additives, such as anti-oxi
dizing agents, chemical binders and glazes, on the physico-
mechanical properties of the resulting periclase-carbona
ceous refractories was studied. The dependence of the oper
ating characteristics of periclase-carbonaceous refractories
on the composition of the slag, technological parameters, and
the type of atmosphere and temperature regime in which the
equipment functions was considered.
In determining the dependence of the compressive
on the content of carbon in the refractory, it
was established that s
falls sharply if the quantity of
graphite in the material is greater than 10% (Fig. 1).
Periclase-carbonaceous refractories were fabricated from
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 54, No. 2, July, 2013
1083-4877/13/05402-0088 © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York
FGAOU VPO Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg, Russia.