Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) and lactoferrin (LF) are suitable proteins to be loaded or adsorbed to chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for preparing stable nanoformulations with potent anticancer activity. In the present study, nanocombinations of LPO and LF revealed improvement in their stability and activity compared to single (free or nanoformulated) bovine proteins. The coating or loading of LPO-loaded NPs with LF resulted in the highest synergistic cytotoxicity effect against Caco-2, HepG-2, MCF-7 and PC-3 cells in comparison with other NPs and free proteins without causing toxicity toward normal cells. This synergistic improvement in the anticancer activity was apoptosis-dependent that was confirmed by severe alterations in cellular morphology, high percentage of annexin-stained cells and sub-G1 populations as well as nuclear staining with orange fluorescence of treated cancer cells. Additionally, significant alterations in the expression of well characterized cellular proliferation and apoptosis guards (NF-κB, Bcl-2 and p53) in these NPs-treated cancer cells compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treated cells. Our findings provide for the first time that these new synergistic nanoformulated forms of LPO and LF were superior in their selective apoptosis-mediating anticancer effect than free form of these proteins and 5-FU. LF coating or loading of LPO-loaded NPs present as promising therapy for cancer.
Scientific Reports – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 1, 2017
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