Detailed Laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) measurements have been carried out in a turbulent rectangular channel flow with one rough wall. The roughness elements of two-dimensional spanwise 120° V-shaped grooves are periodically arranged with different depths and pitches. The Reynolds number based on the centerline velocity, and the channel half height ranges from 2,740 to 20,000. The comparisons of turbulence statistics over smooth and rough walls indicate that the present roughness leads to a significant change in the turbulence both in the inner and in the outer flow. Particularly, the distribution density of the grooves is a key parameter to evaluate the effect of roughness. The low-Reynolds-number dependence of turbulence statistics is also observed. The rough walls with the same pitch-to-depth ratio exhibit the equivalent roughness function under the corresponding Reynolds numbers. The disagreement of velocity defect profiles between smooth and rough walls challenges the defect universal law. The variations of the turbulence stresses and Reynolds shear stress decomposition in the outer layer suggest that the turbulent motions may be modified by the present grooves. The importance of sweep events for the present groove-roughened walls is reflected by the differences in relative contribution to Reynolds shear stress from each quadrant and the higher-order moments over smooth and rough walls.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 2, 2011
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