The near wake of square cylinders with different corner radii was experimentally studied based on particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), laser doppler anemometry (LDA) and hotwire measurements. Four bluff bodies, i.e., r/d=0 (square cylinder), 0.157, 0.236, 0.5 (circular cylinder), where r is corner radius and d is the characteristic dimension of the bluff bodies, were examined. A conditional sampling technique was developed to obtain the phase-averaged PIV data in order to characterize quantitatively the effect of corner radii on the near-wake flow structure. The results show that, as r/d increases from 0 to 0.5, the maximum strength of shed vortices attenuates, the circulation associated with the vortices decreases progressively by 50%, the Strouhal number, St, increases by about 60%, the convection velocity of the vortices increases along with the widening of the wake width by about 25%, the vortex formation length and the wake closure length almost double in size. Meanwhile, both the vortex wavelength, λ x , and the lateral spacing, λ y , decrease as r/d increases, but the ratio of λ y to λ x is approximately 0.29, irrespective of r/d, which is close to the theoretical value of 0.281 for a stable Karman vortex street. The decrease in wavelength is probably responsible for the change in the flow structure from the approximately circular-shaped vortex at r/d=0 to the laterally stretched vortex at r/d=0.5. The leading edge corner radius is more important than the trailing one in influencing the near wake structure since it determines to a great extent the behavior of the streamlines, the separation angle and the base pressure. It is further found that the ratio of the mean drag coefficient to the total shed circulation, C d/Γ0, approaches a constant, about 0.25 for different bluff bodies in the subcritical flow regime. The streamwise evolution of vortices and the streamwise fluctuating velocity along the centerline for rounded cylinders are also discussed.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 18, 2005
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