Background: Oxidative stress is increased in hyperuricemic patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Use of sulfhydryl ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs), such as zofenopril or captopril, plus xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs), may potentially result in enhanced antioxidant effects and improved survival. Objective: We verified the benefit of such combination in a randomly stratified sample of 525 of the 3630 post-AMI patients of the four randomized prospective SMILE (Survival of Myocardial Infarction Long-term Evaluation) studies. Methods: One hundred sixty-five (31.4%) patients were treated with XOIs (79 under zofenopril, 86 placebo, lisinopril or ramipril), whereas 360 were not (192 zofenopril, 168 placebo or other ACEIs). In these four groups, we separately estimated the 1-year combined risk of major cardiovascular events (MACE, death or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes). Results: MACE occurred in 10.1% of patients receiving zofenopril + XOIs, in 18.6% receiving placebo or other ACEIs + XOIs, in 13.5% receiving zofenopril without XOIs and in 22.0% receiving placebo or other ACEIs, but no XOIs (p = 0.034 across groups). Rate of survival free from MACE was significantly larger under treatment with zofenopril + XOIs than with other ACEIswithnoXOIs[hazard ratio: 2.29 (1.06–4.91), p = 0.034]. A non-significant trend for superiority of zofenopril + XOIs combination was observed vs. zofenopril alone [1.19 (0.54–2.64), p = 0.669] or vs. placebo or other ACEIs + XOIs [1.82 (0.78–4.26), p = 0.169]. Conclusions: Our retrospective analysis suggests an improved survival free from MACE in post-AMI patients treated with a combination of an urate lowering drug with antioxidant activity and an ACEI, with best effects observed with zofenopril. Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction, Hyperuricemia, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Xanthine oxidase inhibitors * Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org Unit of Internal Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Divisione di Medicina Interna, Policlinico S.Orsola, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 2 of 10 Background associated with a lower risk of mortality and morbidity as Reduced myocardial antioxidant activity and increased compared to placebo or other ACE-inhibitors. The benefi- oxidant damage have been described in animal models cial effect of zofenopril was associated with some degree of coronary artery disease and heart failure (HF), and of anti-ischemic effects and confirmed in patients with markers of oxidative stress are elevated in the same pa- preserved or impaired left ventricular function [15–18]. tients . Among potential stimuli that contribute to Considering the importance of the over-activation of myocardial failure progression, the over-activation of XO in presence of hyperuricemia, we investigated the ef- xanthine oxidase (XO) plays a central role. XO is an en- fects of the concomitant andministration of XO inhibitors zyme involved in the last two steps of purine catabolism and ACE-inhibitors in post-acute myocardial infarction that ultimately results in uric acid production . The (AMI) patients. We also postulated that the antioxidant degree of activation of XO is directly related to the the activity of zofenopril may be more beneficial in compari- circulating levels of uric acid that can be considered as son to other ACE-inhibitors in patients with AMI treated an indirect marker of oxidative stress in several clinical with XO inhibitor (XOI). Therefore, in this meta-analysis conditions . Serum uric acid is a potent antioxidant, we assessed subgroups of patients involved in the SMILE but it can also promote oxidative stress at high concen- studies who were concomitantly treated with XOIs to ver- trations and in surroundings with low pH or low levels ify the potential enhanced antioxidant effect and survival of other antioxidants . In vitro, uric acid may affect improvement after zofenopril treatment. vascular smooth muscle and mononuclear cells that are important in pathophysiology of cardiovascular (CV) diseases . Indeed, significantly increased serum uric Methods acid levels have been identified in 25% of patients with Study design heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and have been The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the 1-year associated with worsening symptoms and increased mor- combined occurrence of death or hospitalization for CV tality [5, 6]. Vascular activity of XO may also increase causes in patients involved in the SMILE studies who the oxidative stress that underlies endothelial dysfunc- were treated with XOIs. Briefly, the SMILE studies were tion. XO inhibition with allopurinol 300 mg once daily double-blind, randomized, parallel-group studies that for one month was compared with placebo to investigate compared the efficacy and safety of zofenopril with pla- its potential in endothelial function improvement after cebo plus standard therapy for AMI excluding ACE- HF. Allopurinol significantly ameliorated endothelium- inhibitors (SMILE-1 and 3) [15, 18], lisinopril (SMILE-2) dependent vasodilation and reduced markers of oxidative  or ramipril (SMILE-4) . The inclusion criteria stress . In patients with HF allopurinol administration for the SMILE studies were as follows: i) early AMI (< improved left ventricular ejection fraction , diastolic 24 h), not eligible for thrombolytic therapy because of function, and coronary flow reserve  on the short-term, late admission to the intensive care unit or with contra- but showed no definitive benefits on the long-term . indication to systemic fibrinolysis (SMILE-1) , ii) In a placebo controlled cross-over study involving patients confirmed diagnosis of AMI and a prior thrombolytic with chronic stable angina, treatment with allopurinol treatment within 12 h of the onset of clinical symptoms (600 mg per day) for 6 weeks showed anti-ischemic prop- of AMI (SMILE-2) ; iii) recent AMI (within 6 ± erties . Thus, current evidence suggest that XOIs may 1 weeks) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction have important cardioprotective activities . (> 40%), treated with a thrombolytic treatment and with Zofenopril is a potent sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting ACE-inhibitors (SMILE-3) ; and iv) early AMI (< 24 h) enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, characterized by high lipophilic- , treated or not with thrombolysis, with primary percutan- ity, selective cardiac ACE-inhibition, and antioxidant and eous transluminal angioplasty or coronary artery by-pass tissue protective activities . The effects of zofenopril graft, and with clinical and/or echocardiographic evidence treatment in terms of circulating adhesion molecules, oxi- of left ventricular dysfunction (SMILE-4) . The main dative stress parameters and endothelium-dependent exclusion criteria were: i) the presence of cardiogenic vasodilation were analyzed in essential mildly hypertensive shock (Killip class IV); ii) severe hypotension (SBP < 90– patients. Zofenopril has demonstrated a sustained antioxi- 100 mmHg), iii) severe hypertension (DBP > 115 mmHg dant activity and reduced endothelial activation compared and/or SBP > 200 mmHg) iv) a serum creatinine concen- to carboxylic ACE-inhibitor ramipril and the beta- tration > 2.5 mg/dL or renal failure; v) bilateral renal artery adrenoceptor blocker atenolol . The analysis of the stenosis; vi) hemodynamically significant valvular disease; overall population of more than 3600 patients with coron- vii) current treatment with ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin ary heart disease (CHD) and enrolled in the Survival of II-receptor blockers (or acetylsalicylic acid for the SMILE- Myocardial Infarction Long-Term Evaluation (SMILE) 4), and hypersensitivity to these drugs; viii) inability or un- project, showed that the treatment with zofenopril was willingness to give informed consent. Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 3 of 10 Patients were studied between January 1991 (SMILE-1 Furthermore, we ran a confirmatory analysis by using study) and July 2009 (SMILE-4 study) and randomized the propensity score approach to balance non-equivalent double-blind to receive zofenopril, placebo, lisinopril or study groups on observed potential confounding vari- ramipril, in addition to standard recommended therapy ables, in order to get more accurate estimates of the ef- for AMI. Duration of treatment and follow-up were de- fect of treatment with XOIs. The propensity score was pending on the study and ranged 6 to 48 weeks. estimated by applying a logistic regression analysis, Patients who at the randomization visit were treated where the outcome was the treatment variable and pre- with preparation inhibiting uric acid production, namely dictor variables were the covariates [19, 20]. Accord- allopurinol, tisopurine, febuxostat and other anti-gout ingly, we estimated propensity scores with the observed medications (collectively defined in this paper as XOIs) covariates as predictors, and treatment assignment were allowed to continue this therapy during the studies. (dummy coded 0 = no treatment with XOIs, 1 = treat- All studies were conducted according with the Guide- ment with XOIs) as dependent variable. The selected lines for Good Clinical Practice and the Declaration of model included as predictors: age, gender, body mass Helsinki and were approved by the Ethics Committee of index, blood pressure, cardiovascular medical history, each participating center. Written informed consent was diagnosis of diabetes, diagnosis of hypertension, fasting obtained from each patient before enrollment. plasma glucose, total and HDL cholesterol. After fitting the model according to a stepwise approach, the patients Statistical analysis in the two treatment groups were stratified according to The primary study endpoint was the 1-year combined oc- the aforementioned predictors and ranked in five equal- currence of death or hospitalization for CV causes (major sized strata or quintiles (Q). The Q I represented pa- CV events or MACE) and it was calculated after weighing tients with the best and the Q V included those with the for the number of subjects contributing from each study. worst risk profile; thus, patients inside each Q had a All patients treated with at least one dose of study medica- similar overall risk. The choice of five strata was based tion and providing at least once the measure of the primary on the Cochran method , which showed that five efficacy assessment were included in the analysis. The effi- strata are able to remove approximately 90% of the bias cacy endpoint was compared across four different treat- due to a single continuous covariate . To validate ment groups: patients taking zofenopril with concomitant the propensity score model we tested each of the covari- XOIs, zofenopril without XOIs, placebo or any other ACE- ates (predictors) in a two way (2 conditions × 5 strata) inhibitor (lisinopril or ramipril) plus XOIs, placebo or other analysis of variance (continuous variables) or using a lo- ACEI-inhibitors without XOIs. Since in the pooled dataset gistic regression (dichotomous categorical variables). of the SMILE Studies the number of subjects treated with Homogeneity of patients’ baseline characteristics were XOIs was small (165, of which 79 treated with zofenopril compared by a Chi-square test (discrete variables) or a and 86 with placebo, lisinopril or ramipril) compared to Student t-test (continuous variables). The minimum those not treated with XOIs (3465, of which 1729 under level of statistical significance was p < 0.05. Data were zofenopril and 1736 under placebo or other ACE- represented as mean ± SD or 95% confidence interval or inhibitors), the control group was re-sampled with a 2:1 ra- as absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies. tio, using a stratified random sampling method, in order to allow a balanced comparison across the four study groups. Results Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) Patient population were calculated by a Cox proportional-hazard regression The pooled data set included in this analysis consisted of model in which treatment group, gender (males vs. fe- 525 patients of whom 271 (51.6%) were treated with zofe- males), age and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors nopril, 147 (28.0%) with placebo and 107 (20.4%) with (previous angina, congestive heart failure, arterial hyper- ramipril or lisinopril. One-hundred-sixty-five (31.4%) of tension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, periph- the 525 patients were treated with XOIs (79 under zofeno- eral arterial occlusive disease, coronary revascularization) pril and 86 under placebo or other ACE-inhibitors), were included as a covariate. In order to account for dif- whereas the remaining 360 (68.6%) were not (192 zofeno- ferent duration of follow up among the four studies, the pril and 168 placebo or other ACE-inhibitors) (Fig. 1). relative risk of CV morbidity and mortality was assessed Demographic and clinical baseline characteristics were using a time-dependent Cox regression model and corre- comparable among the four groups except for the preva- sponding survival curves were drawn. In addition, a con- lence of diabetes and differences in body mass index and firmatory Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Log Rank diastolic blood pressure (Table 1). Regarding the drugs (Mantel-Cox) test was run by considering events at the used during the study no statistically significant differ- time of their occurrence, without applying any missing ence was observed in the use of cardiovascular therapy handling procedure. across the four study groups (Table 2). Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 4 of 10 Fig. 1 Flow-chart of the patients in the study. ACE: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme; XOI+: patients treated with xanthine oxidase inhibitors; XOI-: patients not treated with xanthine oxidase inhibitors Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population summarized by type of treatment (with, + or without, − concomitant xanthine oxidase inhibitors) Zofenopril+ (n = 79) Zofenopril-(n = 192) Placebo or other Placebo or other p-value ACE-inhibitors+ (n = 86) ACE-inhibitors- (n = 168) Age (years) 62.0 ± 10.3 60.2 ± 10.2 62.0 ± 10.3 62.9 ± 11.0 0.112 Gender Male 57 (72.2) 151 (78.6) 71 (82.6) 119 (70.8) 0.121 Female 22 (27.8) 41 (21.4) 15 (17.4) 49 (29.2) BMI (kg/m ) 26.8 ± 3.3 28.2 ± 4.2 27.4 ± 3.9 26.3 ± 3.8 < 0.001 Systolic BP (mmHg) 139.8 ± 22.4 134.0 ± 20.0 135.5 ± 21.0 136.4 ± 22.8 0.251 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 85.2 ± 13.8 80.8 ± 12.3 83.1 ± 12.3 83.3 ± 11.9 0.046 Heart Rate (bpm) 78.9 ± 14.5 77.7 ± 16.1 77.6 ± 16.1 76.1 ± 15.1 0.503 LVEF (%) 46.6 ± 8.4 44.9 ± 10.0 45.1 ± 5.9 45.1 ± 13.2 0.946 Killip Class I 38 (48.1) 80 (41.7) 44 (51.2) 75 (44.6) 0.477 II 35 (44.3) 101 (52.6) 39 (45.3) 85 (50.6) 0.519 III-IV 4 (5.1) 11 (5.7) 3 (3.5) 8 (4.8) 0.884 CV risk factors 68 (86.1) 154 (80.2) 70 (81.4) 137 (81.5) 0.728 Diabetes 21 (26.6) 44 (22.9) 27 (31.4) 70 (41.7) 0.001 Hypercholesterolemia 19 (24.1) 47 (24.5) 17 (19.8) 38 (22.6) 0.848 Hypertension 47 (59.5) 97 (50.5) 46 (53.5) 87 (51.8) 0.592 Data are shown as absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies for categorical variables and as means (±SD) for continuous variables. P-values refer to the statistical significance of the difference across the four treatment groups. BMI: Body Mass Index; SD Standard Deviation, BP Blood Pressure, LVEF Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, CV Cardiovascular Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 5 of 10 Table 2 Concomitant cardiovascular drug treatments during the follow-up period by type of treatment (with, + or without, − concomitant xanthine oxidase inhibitors Zofenopril+ (n = 79) Zofenopril-(n = 192) Placebo or other Placebo or other p-value ACE-inhibitors+ (n = 86) ACE-inhibitors- (n = 168) ACE-inhibitors 2 (2.5) 6 (3.1) 2 (2.3) 3 (1.8) 0.879 Angiotensin II receptor blockers – 2 (1.0) –– 0.323 Beta-blockers 37 (46.8) 95 (49.5) 39 (45.4) 85 (50.6) 0.837 Calcium channel blockers 6 (7.6) 19 (9.9) 6 (7.0) 13 (7.7) 0.814 Diuretics 13 (16.5) 40 (20.8) 20 (23.3) 38 (22.6) 0.682 Nitrates 31 (39.2) 96 (50.0) 50 (58.1) 92 (54.8) 0.067 Antiarrhythmic drugs 6 (7.6) 16 (8.3) 5 (5.8) 13 (7.7) 0.910 Antithrombotic agents (including ASA) 70 (88.6) 151 (78.6) 69 (80.2) 141 (83.9) 0.219 Lipid lowering drugs (including statins) 32 (40.5) 61 (31.8) 28 (32.6) 52 (31.0) 0.480 Other cardiovascular drugs 11 (13.9) 31 (16.2) 12 (13.9) 22 (13.1) 0.866 Data are shown as absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies. P-values refer to the statistical significance of the difference across the four treatment groups. ACE Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, ASA Acetyl Salicylic Acid 2 2 Cardiovascular outcomes according to treatment group QII: 27.8 ± 3.8 kg/m ; QIII: 27.0 ± 3.6 kg/m ; QIV: 27. 2 2 MACE occurred in 24 of 165 patients (14.5%) treated with 3±4.4 kg/m ; QV: 26.7 ± 4.3 kg/m ; p = 0.329) and concomitant XOIs and in 63 of 360 patients (17.5%) not the prevalence of diabetes (QI:28.6%; QII: 34.3%; QIII: treated with XOIs, with a 20% non-statistically significant 37.1%; QIV: 33.3%; QV: 21.0%; p =0.095) and (p = 0.398) lower risk of achieving the end-point under hypercholesterolemia (QI:15.2%; QII: 24.8%; QIII: 25. XOIs [hazard ratio: 0.80 (0.48, 1.34)]. Eight (10.1%) patients 7%; QIV: 27.6%; QV: 21.9%; p =0.238) (Table 3). After receiving zofenopril with XOIs, 16 (18.6%) receiving pla- adjusting for the propensity score, the rate of MACE cebo or other ACE-inhibitors with XOIs, 26 (13.5%) receiv- was still non-significantly (p = 0.456) lower in XOI- ing zofenopril without XOIs and 37 (22.0%) receiving treated patients [hazard ratio: 0.84 (0.34, 2.10)]. placebo or other ACE-Inhibitors without XOIs reported a The rate of MACE significantly (p = 0.043) increased MACE during the study (p = 0.034 across groups) (Fig. 2a). at increasing Q. Differences in the effect of the various Survival MACE free rate was significantly larger in pa- study drugs were observed within each Q of the propen- tients receiving zofenopril with XOIs than in those who sity score. A superior effect of concomitant treatment were treated with placebo or other ACE-inhibitors with- with XOIs (and in particular of zofenopril with XOIs) vs. out XOIs [hazard ratio: 2.29 (1.06, 4.91), Cox regression treatment without XOIs (in particular placebo or ACE- analysis p = 0.034] (Fig. 2d). A non-significant trend for inhibitors without XOIs) was observed in Q I (MACE superiority was observed for zofenopril with XOIs com- under zofenopril plus XOIs: 0% vs. 20.8% under placebo pared to zofenopril alone [1.19 (0.54, 2.64), p = 0.669] or other ACE-inhibitors without XOIs) and Q II (4.5% (Fig. 2b) or to placebo or other ACE-inhibitors with vs. 17.2%) low risk category and in the Q IV (16.7% vs. XOIs [1.82 (0.78, 4.26), p = 0.169] (Fig. 2c). 28.1%) and Q V (20.0% vs. 25.5%) high risk category. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, survival time without any Figure 4a, shows cumulative survival without events events was significantly longer in patients treated with zofe- during 1-year of follow-up in the whole study population nopril and XOIs [10.9 (10.2, 11.7) months] than in those and after stratification for propensity score in all the treated with placebo or other ACE-inhibitors without XOIs treated patients: the trend for a superior effect of treat- [9.5 (8.7, 10.2) months; Log rank test p = 0.033) (Fig. 3c). ment including a XOI was observed for all Qs except for Average survival time free from cardiovascular events was Q III. When patients treated with placebo were excluded only marginally lower in patients treated with zofenopril from the analysis (thus including only patients treated without XOIs [10.7 (10.2, 11.2) months; p = 0.709 vs. zofe- with zofenopril or other ACE-inhibitors), the analysis nopril plus XOIs) and in those treated with placebo or confirmed a trend to a higher chance of survival in case ACE-Inhibitors with XOIs [9.9 (8.9, 10.8) months; p = 0.170 of concomitant treatment with XOIs in the lowest and vs. zofenopril with XOIs] (Fig. 3a and b). highest Qs, whereas for intermediate risk (QIII) a benefit of XOI treatment was not observed (Fig. 4b). Propensity analysis A statistically significant difference was observed across the Discussion five groups for the predictors included in the propensity This retrospective analysis on SMILE pooled patients analysis, except for body mass index (QI: 27.3 ± 3.6 kg/m ; demonstrated that the combination of an ACE-inhibitor Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 6 of 10 ab cd Fig. 2 Cumulative survival without events during 1-year of follow-up (based on Cox regression analysis), in (a) the whole population of patients treated (+) or not treated (-) with Xantine-oxidase inhibitors, (b) patients receiving zofenopril with xanthine oxidase inhibitors (+) as respect to those treated with zofenopril alone (-), (c) those treated with zofenopril (zofenopril+) vs. placebo or other angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors both in combination with and xanthine-oxidase inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors+) and (d) those treated with zofenopril and xanthine-oxidase inhibitors (zofenopril+) vs. placebo or other ACE-inhibitors without XOIs (ACE-inhibitors-). P-values for the between-group comparison are reported in each panel ab c Fig. 3 Kaplan-Meier curves for survival without events during 1-year of follow-up, in patients receiving zofenopril with xanthine oxidase inhibitors or XOIs (+) as respect to those treated with zofenopril without (−) XOIs, those treated with placebo or other angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)- inhibitors plus XOIs, those treated with placebo or other ACE-inhibitors without concomitant XOIs. P-values for the between-group comparison based on Log Rank Test are reported in each panel Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 7 of 10 Table 3 Baseline demographic characteristics of the study population stratified by propensity subgroups (quintiles, Q) Characteristics Propensity group p-value for propensity QI(n = 105) Q II (n = 105) Q III (n = 105) Q IV (n = 105) Q V (n = 105) score analysis ≤0.0095 0.0096–0.0205 0.0206–0.0412 0.0413–0.0849 ≥0.0850 Age (years, mean ± SD) 51.6 ± 8.8 58.1 ± 10.2 61.9 ± 8.2 65.0 ± 7.1 71.4 ± 6.6 < 0.001 Gender (n, %) Male 98 (93.3) 88 (83.8) 87 (82.9) 73 (69.5) 52 (49.5) < 0.001 Female 7 (6.7) 17 (16.2) 18 (17.1) 32 (30.5) 53 (50.5) BMI (kg/m , means ± SD) 27.3 ± 3.6 27.8 ± 3.8 27.0 ± 3.6 27.3 ± 4.4 26.7 ± 4.3 0.329 Systolic BP (mmHg, means±SD) 127.4 ± 18.9 129.8 ± 19.0 139.1 ± 20.1 138.5 ± 23.0 144.4 ± 22.2 < 0.001 Diastolic BP (mmHg, means±SD) 77.1 ± 11.7 79.8 ± 11.4 83.3 ± 11.1 84.7 ± 12.6 88.5 ± 12.4 < 0.001 Heart rate (bpm, means ± SD) 73.1 ± 13.1 74.5 ± 13.0 74.1 ± 12.6 81.0 ± 14.8 83.9 ± 15.4 < 0.001 LVEF (%, means ± SD) 48.8 ± 10.2 45.9 ± 10.1 45.7 ± 9.1 42.7 ± 9.4 41.1 ± 10.3 0.002 CV Risk Factors (n, %) 48 (45.7) 80 (76.2) 93 (88.6) 103 (98.1) 105 (100.0) < 0.001 Diabetes (n, %) 30 (28.6) 36 (34.3) 39 (37.1) 35 (33.3) 22 (21.0) 0.095 Hypercholesterolemia (n, %) 16 (15.2) 26 (24.8) 27 (25.7) 29 (27.6) 23 (21.9) 0.238 Hypertension (n, %) 29 (27.6) 50 (47.6) 61 (58.1) 66 (62.9) 71 (67.6) < 0.001 Data are shown as absolute (n) and relative frequencies (%) for categorical variables and as means (±SD) for continuous variables. P-values refer to the statistical significance of the difference across the five Qs. SD Standard Deviation, BMI Body Mass Index, LVEF Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure, HR Heart Rate and XOIs may be protective against MACE after AMI re-infarction after a first episode of AMI and demon- compared to treatment with an ACE-inhibitor without strated that there was none difference in terms of clin- XOIs. A combination treatment of zofenopril and XOI ical efficacy between ACE inhibitors. However, in this seems to promote a statistically significant longer sur- study zofenopril was not included and the only sulfhy- vival time without any events than treatment with other dryl ACE inhibitor was captopril . Zofenopril dem- ACEIs not combined with XOIs, whereas a non- onstrated higher anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidant statistically significant trend to a large benefit of the effects than captopril in the arterial wall of hypercholes- XOI + zofenopril combination is observed vs. the com- terolemic apoE(−/−) mice . In rat models of experi- bination of another ACE-inhibitor and XOI or vs. zofe- mental cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, nopril alone. Possible explanations for our findings, as zofenopril prevented the changes that usually occurred well as limitations of the present retrospective analysis, during IR injury and reduced lipid peroxidation, protein will be discussed in the next paragraphs. oxidation, and nitric oxide levels as well as XO and mye- In our population, the prevalence of patients who loperoxidase activities and increased the catalase and needed preparation inhibiting uric acid production was superoxide dismutase activities . In untreated nor- slightly higher than gout prevalence reported from 2000 mocholesterolemic patients with moderate essential to 2005 in European countries (4.5% vs 1.4%) . This hypertension without clinically evident target organ may be explained with the observation that there is an damage, a 12-weeks treatment with zofenopril signifi- independent relationship between hyperuricemia and cantly reduced malondialdehyde levels, plasma NOx and AMI  and patients with gout have an increased risk asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine concentrations, com- of AMI . pared to enalapril that was ineffective . Consistently, The analysis of pooled data confirmed the results of the long term treatment with zofenopril in mildly hyper- individual SMILE studies. In each SMILE study, treat- tensive patients resulted in a favorable nitric oxide/oxi- ment of AMI patients with zofenopril effectively reduced dative stress profile and showed a slower progression of the risk of mortality and hospitalization for cardiovascu- intima- media thickening of the carotid artery beyond lar causes compared to placebo and other ACE- lowering arterial pressure . inhibitors, such as lisinopril and ramipril . The re- The present retrospective analysis is based on the ob- sults of pooled SMILE studies supported the notion that servation that clinical benefits of early zofenopril treat- there are differences in terms of efficacy between differ- ment in post-AMI phase are related also to its anti- ent ACE-inhibitors, and that, in contrast to previous ob- oxidant properties and, therefore, the combination with servations, a class effect is unlikely . As a matter of XOIs may have an enhanced effect. Previous studies fact, Hansen et al. investigated the risk of mortality and have investigated the opportunity of a therapy with Borghi et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders (2018) 18:112 Page 8 of 10 Fig. 4 Cumulative survival without events during 1-year of follow-up in the whole study population and after stratification for propensity score (quintiles, Q), according to presence (+) or absence (−)of concomitant treatment with xanthine oxidase inhibitors XOIs. Data are shown for all treated patients (a) and after excluding patients treated with placebo (b) oxypurinol 600 mg daily in addition to an ACE- inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker and a beta- blocker in patients with moderate-to-severe HF. Oxypur- inol significantly reduced serum uric acid by approxi- mately 2 mg/dL, but did not improve the clinical status in unselected patients and when patients were stratified according to uric acid levels patients with elevated uric acid levels (≥ 9.5 mg/dL, n = 108) responded favorably to oxypurinol, whereas patients with UA < 9.5 mg/dL ex- hibited a trend towards worsening . In our study, pa- tients were clustered according to XOI treatment and not to uric acid levels. Therefore, we selected patients who already needed a preparation inhibiting uric acid production and had a therapy. These patients had major benefits in post-AMI phase when they were treated with zofenopril than lisinopril or ramipril. Further larger studies should be recommended to identify which popu- lation of hyperuremic patients may achieve major clin- ical benefits with zofenopril treatment post-AMI. This study has some main limitations. First of all, it was a retrospective analysis and the number of patients con- comitantly treated with ACE inhibitors and XOI in post- AMI phase was limited. This may explain why some com- parisons (e.g. those between zofenopril and other ACE- inhibitors) did not achieve statistical significance. We tried to overcome this limitation in two ways: we down- sampled the control population of patients not treated with XOI, thus balancing the comparisons (yet, however, limited to a small sample), and we applied a propensity score analysis . The latter confirmed the superiority of concomitant treatment with XO in terms of prevention of MACE and supported a better efficacy of a combination including zofenopril. However, we acknowledge that, given the retrospective nature of our study, the sample size could have been underpowered to demonstrate the study goal. Second, despite a very similar design of the four SMILE studies, there were some differences in the inclu- sion criteria, treatment duration, and follow-up. Our ana- lysis included both thrombolyzed and non-thrombolyzed patients and those with and without left ventricular dys- function; in addition, clinical effect was observed at differ- ent time-points. Thus, the patients considered in this study may be representative of those who could be en- countered in post-AMI phase in clinical practice. How- ever, in assessments of differences between treatments, variations in baseline characteristics may decrease the sen- sitivity of such analyses to show interaction. Borghi et al. 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Cardioprotective role of zofenopril in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a pooled individual data analysis of four randomised, double- blind, controlled, prospective studies. Open Heart. 2015;2(1):e000220. 27. Hansen ML, Gislason GH, Kober L, Schramm TK, Folke F, Buch P, Abildstrom SZ, Madsen M, Rasmussen S, Torp-Pedersen C. Different angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors have similar clinical efficacy after myocardial infarction. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65(2):217–23. 28. de Nigris F, D'Armiento FP, Somma P, Casini A, Andreini I, Sarlo F, Mansueto G, De Rosa G, Bonaduce D, Condorelli M, Napoli C. Chronic treatment with sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce susceptibility of plasma LDL to in vitro oxidation, formation of oxidation-specific epitopes in the arterial wall, and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Int J Cardiol. 2001;81(2–3):107–115; discusssion 15–6. 29. Altunoluk B, Soylemez H, Oguz F, Turkmen E, Fadillioglu E. An angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor, zofenopril, prevents renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2006;36(3):326–32. 30. Napoli C, Sica V, de Nigris F, Pignalosa O, Condorelli M, Ignarro LJ, Liguori A. Sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition induces sustained reduction of systemic oxidative stress and improves the nitric oxide pathway in patients with essential hypertension. Am Heart J 2004;148(1):e5. 31. Napoli C, Bruzzese G, Ignarro LJ, Crimi E, de Nigris F, Williams-Ignarro S, Libardi S, Sommese L, Fiorito C, Mancini FP, Cacciatore F, Liguori A. Long- term treatment with sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition reduces carotid intima-media thickening and improves the nitric oxide/ oxidative stress pathways in newly diagnosed patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension. Am Heart J. 2008;156(6):1154. e1–8 32. Hare JM, Mangal B, Brown J, Fisher C Jr, Freudenberger R, Colucci WS, Mann DL, Liu P, Givertz MM, Schwarz RP, Investigators O-C. Impact of oxypurinol in patients with symptomatic heart failure. Results of the OPT-CHF study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(24):2301–9.
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 5, 2018
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