ISSN 10630740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2010, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 191–194. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © Zh.V. Markina, 2010, published in Biologiya Morya.
Industrial development and introduction of new
technologies inevitably entails the synthesis of new
chemicals, such as the large group of surfactants, or
surface active substances (SASs). Currently, over
1000 SAS and their derivatives are known, which are
now used in many industries and households. Among
SASs, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is one of the most
commonly used, occupying the second place in pro
duction . When surfactants are released into the
environment, the hazard from them is associated with
impairment of the functions of the ecosystem; the
great volume of sewage waters containing surfactants
adds significantly to the problem [12, 18, 22].
Model experiments on microalgae under labora
tory conditions provide an opportunity to understand
the causes of structural changes in ecosystems. An
important role in examining the action of toxicants is
played by microscopic algae, among which species of
are most frequently used; they are
considered to be universal test objects because of the
representativeness of the results obtained, their ease of
cultivation, and their availability in many algological
collections of the world [9, 13, 24, 25].
The aim of this work was to evaluate the action of
sodium dodecyl sulfate upon the dynamics of cell
number and physiological condition of the unicellular
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The marine unicellular alga
(Chlorophyta) was used as the object of our study. The
The article was translated by the authors.
algal cultures were grown in Goldberg’s nutrient
medium, which was prepared using filtered sterilized
seawater with a salinity of 32‰. The alga was cultured
in 250 ml Erlenmeyer’s flasks, the volume of the cul
ture medium was 100 ml, and the fluorescent lamps
used had an intensity of 70
s. The illumina
tion period was 12 hours light, 12 hours dark. For sow
ing we used an algal culture in the exponential growth
phase; the suspension was mixed once or twice a day.
The duration of the experiments was 7 days .
We studied the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate in
the experiments (Serva, Germany. The toxic agent was
introduced at the beginning of the experiment in con
centrations of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/l, because the content
of SAS in sea waters varies in a wide range from trace
amounts to 10 mg/l in the areas of maritime ports .
A content of 0.1 mg/l of detergents corresponds to the
maximum permissible concentration for fishery waters
in Russia .
The influence of the toxic agent on the micro alga
was estimated using the following indicators: the num
ber of algal cells; the contents of photosynthetic pig
ments (PP), chlorophyll
, and carotenoids; and the
pH of the culture medium.
The samples were collected after careful mixing at
the same time of day, 1–2 hours after the end of a dark
period. Samples for counting the number of cells per
unit volume were fixed with Utermohl’s solution. The
cell number was counted in a Goryaev’s chamber.
The PP contents were determined by the method of
acetone extraction from cells followed by measure
ment on an SF46 spectrophotometer (LOMO, Rus
Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on the Growth Dynamics
and Physiological State of the Microalga
Zh. V. Markina
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received November 19, 2009
—This study deals with the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/l) on the
growth dynamics and physiological state of the microalga
Teod. (Chlorophyta). The effects
of SDS increase with increasing concentration. At 10 mg/l, this toxicant significantly inhibited microalgal
growth and led to a decrease in chlorophyll
and carotenoid contents.
sodium dodecyl sulfate, surfaceactive substances,