Effects of reduction mammaplasty on the static balance
and biomechanics of gait
Remi Goulart Jr.
Gustavo Ricardo Schütz
Roberta Pires Vasconcellos
Saray Giovana dos Santos
Received: 9 August 2012 /Accepted: 25 September 2012 /Published online: 11 October 2012
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012
Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of
reduction mammaplasty on static balance and gait from
women with breast hypertrophy grades III and IV.
Methods Eleven women took part of this study. The pre-test
was performed 15 days before surgery and post-tests 60 and
90 days after surgery. Body mass index (BMI), center of
gravity (CG), and biomechanics gait (kinetic and kinematic)
Results No significant difference in the BMI was found
among the assessments. There were large effects on the
kinetic variables and in support and balance phases over
the gait after the surgery. There were moderate effects on
spatiotemporal variables. In addition, there was improve-
ment in static balance in both front and sagittal planes.
Conclusions Those changes affect positively women’s
health, assisting in the adoption of a more appropriate and
less aggressive posture to the muscle–skeletal system.
Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.
Keywords Breast hypertrophy
Breast hypertrophy may be defined as breast abnormal
increase and characterized by volume progression, generally
bilateral, predominantly due to the increase of stroma and, in
part, glandular parenchyma . The concept of breast hy-
pertrophy is not just a simple characterization of breast size
since several symptoms and muscle-skeletal adaptations that
impact on the self-esteem and life quality of women has
been diagnosed [2–5].
The main symptoms associated with breast hypertrophy
are pain in the neck, shoulder, lumbar spine, and shortness
of breath [6–9]. According to Benditte-Klepetko et al. ,
breast excessive weight also may lead to a reduction in the
chest wall compliance and pulmonary function reduction.
Furthermore, motion range decrease in the upper limbs is a
common adaptation in those women .
Static balance and gait might also be altered in women
with breast hypertrophy. Breasts excessive weight may gen-
erate unbalance in the muscles supporting the spine, and
also, degeneration in intervertebral disks of the thoracic and
cervical spine , projecting toward the center of gravity.
In an attempt to maintain the upright posture, it may pro-
voke lumbar spine compensation and cause pelvic antever-
sion. Those posture changes increased the body support
base, causing changes in standard considered normal for
gait and balance.
In general, when breast hypertrophy reaches degrees III
and IV, the most recommended procedure is reduction mam-
maplasty, which involves the removal of part of the breast
volume. After this surgical procedure, an improvement not
only in the functional aspects, but also on women’s body
image and life quality was verified [8, 12–14].
However, the most of studies regarding mammaplasty
reduction analyze the benefits only through the perception
R. Goulart Jr.
São Francisco Hospital,
G. R. Schütz
R. P. Vasconcellos
S. G. dos Santos
Biomechanics Laboratory, Federal University of Santa Catarina,
G. R. Schütz (*)
Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education (PPGEF),
Sports Center—University Campus-Trindade,
Federal University of Santa Catarina,
Florianópolis, SC, Brazil Zip Code 88040-900
Eur J Plast Surg (2013) 36:225–230