Mental rotation is a task in which men outscore women by up to one standard deviation. Many biological, strategic, experiential, and motivational factors concur to explain this gender gap. Among these there are gender stereotypes, which could either harm or favor performance, giving rise, respectively, to stereotype threat or lift effects. This study examined effects due to stereotypes induced by testing women in a minority mixed-gender group composition (subtle message) when provided with instructions about men’s or women’s superiority (blatant message), in order to assess the hypothesis that the effort of disconfirming a negative stereotype causes increased performance when two messages, either blatant or subtle, are provided. Sixty-six men and 78 women tested either in a mixed-gender or a same-gender group composition were provided with one of the three instructions (men better, women better, nullifying) after performing a mental rotation test (baseline measure) and before taking another one. Results showed that women increased performance mainly when instructed that men score higher in the mixed-gender group composition, and after the nullifying instructions when tested in the same-gender group composition. Men increased performance mainly when they were instructed that women scored higher. Taken together, the results showed that both genders improve performance, when two threats arise both subtly and blatantly, or when no threat is in the air. Effects of implicit and explicit activated stereotypes are discussed.
Archives of Sexual Behavior – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera