Many water systems worldwide are affected by pollutants, including potential endocrine disruptors (EDs). Most studies on the effects of EDs on fish reproduction have focused on oviparous species. However, some important groups of fishes are not oviparous and there is scarce information about how EDs affect species with alternative reproductive modes. Goodeinae is a viviparous matrotrophic subfamily with intraluminal gestation (IG), where transfer of nutrients occurs and embryos develop inside the ovarian cavity. Goodeinae is endemic to the Mexican Central Plateau, an area affected by potential EDs, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This review synthesizes the available information about EDs in viviparous teleosts with IG and performs a case study on the effects of 2,4-D on gonadal structure of two Goodeinae species. We hypothesized that individuals exposed to 2,4-D might show altered gonadal structure. The available information included effects on gene expression, sexual differentiation, gametogenesis, secondary sexual characteristics, and sexual behavior. Knowledge gaps persisted on the effects of EDs on viviparous teleosts with IG. Holistic approaches are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption effects. Field studies are needed to evaluate the consequences of EDs on wild populations. The case study revealed histological alterations in oocytes, spermatogonia, and sperm cysts in fishes exposed to 2,4-D. Ultrastructurally, gonads exhibited alterations in oocyte mitochondrial and nuclear membranes, and in spermatid mitochondria. The observed changes could be related to 2,4-D exposure, which may affect species reproduction in their natural environment. Matrotrophic viviparous teleosts with IG may serve as models to explore endocrine disruption.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 5, 2016
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