SOILS, SEC 1 • SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DYNAMICS AND NUTRIENT CYCLING • RESEARCH ARTICLE
Effects of different green manure treatments on soil apparent N and P
balance under a 34-year double-rice cropping system
Received: 5 February 2018 /Accepted: 29 May 2018
Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Purpose Although green manure rotation is often used to promote soil fertility and crop yield, the effects of this management
practice on the nitrogen or phosphorus balance and the relationship between nutrient balance and the increase in soil nutrients
have not been systematically studied.
Materials and methods We investigated the apparent nitrogen and phosphorus balances and their associations with soil nitrogen
and phosphorus increases, respectively, in a 34-year-old experimental site with various green manures and rice rotations using
linear and logistic models. Cropping treatments included a rice-rice-winter fallow treatment as a control (RRW) and three green
manure rotation treatments: rice-rice-ryegrass (RRR), rice-rice-oil rape (RRO), and rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (RRC).
Results and discussion We found that apparent nitrogen and phosphorus balances of RRR, RRO, and RRC were 164, 162, and
149 kg hm
, which were all significantly lower than 200 kg hm
of RRW (P < 0.05). Moreover, the optimal fitted model of the
relationship between cumulative nutrient balance and the increase in soil nutrients was different among treatments. Specifically,
the correlation coefficients of cumulative nitrogen balance and soil nitrogen increase of RRR, RRO, and RRC in the linear model
(0.49, 0.80, and 0.63) were all significantly lower than in the logistic model (0.81, 0.90, and 0.82). The correlation coefficients of
cumulative phosphorus balance and increase in soil phosphorus of RRW in the linear model (0.81) were significantly lower than
in the logistic model (0.91). Parameter analysis of the optimal fitted model revealed that RRC would increase the storage capacity
of soil nitrogen and decrease the rate of soil phosphorus accumulation.
Conclusions Our results suggested that long-term rice-rice-green manure rotation could significantly change the apparent nitrogen and
phosphorus balance and their association with soil nitrogen and phosphorus content, respectively. Our study highlights the importance
of green manure rotation in an agro-ecological environment and soil fertility in a double rice cropping system in red paddy soil.
nitrogen and phosphorus increases
Xi Hong and Chao Ma contributed equally to this work.
Responsible editor: Weixin Ding
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
(https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-2049-5) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
* Xibai Zeng
College of Resource and Environment, Hunan Agricultural
University, Changsha 410128, China
Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province,
Changsha 410125, Hunan, China
Anhui Province Key Lab of Farmland Ecological Conservation and
Pollution Prevention, School of Resources and Environment, Anhui
Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China
Qiyang Agro-ecosystem of National Field Experimental Station,
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese
Academy of Agricultural Sciences, QiYang 426182, Hunan, China
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in
Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key
Laboratory of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture of China,
Beijing 100081, China
Journal of Soils and Sediments