Eurasian Econ Rev https://doi.org/10.1007/s40822-018-0100-x ORIGINAL PAPER Anan Wattanakuljarus Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 © Eurasia Business and Economics Society 2018 Abstract This study examines how a 20% reduction in carbon emissions in Thai- land by 2030—as pledged by Thailand’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribu- tions (INDC) at the 21st Conference on Climate Change (COP21, Paris)—would cause economy-wide effects and burdens on Thai households. A carbon tax scheme is used to simulate such an outlook, given projected business-as-usual market con- ditions throughout the period. Overall, the simulation results show that a decline in social welfare and household consumption levels is influenced by higher com - modity prices and lower primary factors: labor income or returns to capital. The scarcity of primary factors and the existence of social transfers have little influence on the reduction of carbon emissions. The simulation contains two circumstances: one without social transfers and the other with them. In the first case, the welfare effects are progressive when at least one of the two primary factors is inelastic but regressive when both are elastic. In other words, the less both primary factors are employed, the greater are the household burdens.
Eurasian Economic Review – Springer Journals
Published: May 29, 2018
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