X-ray diffraction is a non-destructive method used for strain measurements in crystalline materials. Conversion of strain to stress can be achieved using the X-ray elastic constants (XEC), s 1 and ½s 2. The sin2 ψ method was used during in situ loading to determine XEC for flake, vermicular, and spherical graphite iron. A fully pearlitic steel was used as reference. Uniaxial testing was conducted on the cast iron to create a homogeneous strain field, as well as four-point bending in both tension and compression due to the tension/compression asymmetry. The commonly used XEC value ½s 2 = 5.81 × 10−6 MPa−1 is theoretically derived from an α-Fe single crystal. When investigating materials that contain ferrite, such as polycrystalline cast iron, this value is not accurate. Determination of an effective XEC for polycrystalline cast iron yields a better correlation between the measured microstrains and the properties observed on a macroscopic scale. The need for an effective XEC is evident, especially when it comes to model validation of, for example, casting simulations. Effective XEC values have been determined for flake, vermicular, and spherical graphite iron. The determined value is lower than the theoretical value.
Journal of Materials Science – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 12, 2017
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