EFFECTIVE USE OF HIGH DENSITY CERAMIC
FOR MANUFACTURE OF CUTTING AND WORKING TOOLS
V. V. Kuzin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 12, pp. 13 – 19, December 2010.
Original article submitted October 11, 2010.
A systematic approach is considered for effective use of high density ceramic for manufacturing cutting and
working tools, based on use of a model constructed for their operation and separate levels of controlling their
operating properties. A mechanism is developed for controlling the operating properties of ceramic tools,
aimed at creating conditions forming the minimum level of micro- and macrostresses, reducing the probability
of development of operating defects, increasing the time for defect-free operation of tools, reducing wear in
tensity and the probability of unpredictable failure.
Keywords: highly dense ceramic tools, wear, failure, operating model, operating defects, stresses, levels of
The most complete use of the potential of contemporary
machining systems assumes creation of a new generation of
cutting and working tools. In this respect particular attention
concerns tools of highly dense ceramic, presenting a real
possibility for a manifold increase in machining productivity.
The considerable lower sensitivity of high density ceramic to
high temperature and its chemical inertness compared with
hard alloys makes these tools very promising for high-speed
Currently ceramic tools have a very limited application
range, and they are used most effectively for final machining
of cast iron and hardened steel components. Intensification
of machining regimes leads to an extreme load for a ceramic
tool, which combined with a complex failure mechanism of
highly dense ceramic signifies a sharp increase in the proba
bility of unpredictable failure. A study of this problem has
been followed by many researchers, with particular attention
is given to revealing the interconnection of volumetric and
surface properties of ceramic tools with their operating indi
ces [1, 2]. However, a lack of a comprehensive approach to
solving a multiplan program makes it impossible to connect
in a single system stages for development, manufacture and
operation of ceramic tools and to form a theoretical basis for
the constructive interaction of specialists for ceramic materi
als and tools of contemporary machining systems. In this
connection the aim of this work is to form a systematic ap
proach to effective use of highly dense ceramic for manufac
turing cutting and working tools.
During their development ceramic materials for tool pur-
poses have a travelled a long and complex evolutionary pro-
cess. The first mention of tool materials relates to the start of
the twentieth century, and the start of systematic work for
creating ceramic tools was in the 1930s . At that time
practically simultaneously in the Soviet Union, Germany and
England cutting tips of aluminum oxide were created. In the
middle of the 1980s tool ceramics became a subsidiary prod-
uct of the manufacture of ceramic materials for structural
purposes. For example, structural ceramic based on silicon
nitride only subsequently came into use for the manufacture
of cutting tips. To an equal degree this relates to highly dense
ceramic reinforced with fibrous crystals.
This tendency led to the development of ceramic tools.
First, development of tool ceramics, based on research work
clearly demonstrated that development of this specific mate
rial required a special approach, aimed at solution of a
clearly formulated problem. Second, fulfilment of research
work and the newly developed highly dense ceramic materi
als exhibiting a very favorable set of physicomechanical and
thermophysical properties, may be a basis for creating a new
generation of ceramic materials for tool purposes. Third, use
of generalized specifications in the development of a new
highly dense ceramic for tool manufacture, which are in a
working condition for several tens of minutes, does not lead
to significant results. These circumstances are connected
with the fact that ceramic tools operate under conditions of
very “severe” loading (similar operating conditions for ce
ramic structural components simply do not exist).
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 51, No. 6, March, 2011
1083-4877/11/5106-0421 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
MGTU Stankin, Moscow, Russia.