EFFECTIVE LININGS FOR KIVCET FURNACES
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.10,pp.5–7,October, 2013.
Original article submitted February 4, 2013.
A study is made of the reasons for the short service life of elements of the lining of Kivcet furnaces, including
the roof and the bottom. Combination-type designs are developed for the lining and the most durable refrac
tory products are determined with allowance for the chemical compositions of the slag and the matte. Results
obtained at the Irtysh Polymetallurgical Combine were used to test and introduce an arched roof made of a
periclase-chromite refractory instead of dinas and a bottom made of a periclase-chromite refractory that is
fused rather than sintered. These measures lengthened the life of the lining by a factor of 2.5, increasing it
from 10 months to 26 months. Successful tests of a thrust-suspension roof on a Kivcet furnace at the
Ust-Kamenogrosk Lead-Zinc Combine have shown the expediency of this design compared to arched roofs.
The length of the period between repairs was increased to 17 months.
Keywords: modern metallurgical processes, copper-zinc and lead-zinc concentrates, periclase-chromite,
chromite-periclase, and dinas refractories, arched and thrust-suspension roofs, bottom.
Kivcet furnaces (Kivcet stands for oxygen-fluidized
electrothermal smelting) are designed to process heavy non-
ferrous metals. They efficiently combine the use of oxygen,
electric power, and the principles of fluidized and cyclone re-
fining. The Kivcet process is becoming especially important
in connection with the processing of new copper-zinc ores of
complex mineralogical and chemical compositions from the
Combining several metallurgical processes in a single
furnace entails the use of several temperature regimes in sep
arate chambers, the generation of gases of complex composi
tion, and the formation of low-viscosity slags. These condi
tions place high demands on the durability of the furnace
refractories and the design of the elements of the lining. An
analysis was made of the performance data of refractories in
a Kivcet furnace at the Irtysh Polymetallurgical Combine
during the period when the furnace was first being used to
smelt collective copper-zinc concentrates from the Nikola
The mattes obtained from processing the concentrates
had the following composition, %: Cu 40 – 50, Zn 5 – 10, S
20 – 21. The composition of the slags that were also formed
in the process was as follows, %: Cu 0.4 – 0.9, Zn 7 – 12, Fe
25 – 30, Cao 8 – 12, SiO
28 – 35. The temperature of the
medium in the smelting chamber reaches 1800°C, the tem
perature of the gases leaving the chamber reaches 1300°C,
and the temperature of the matte when it is being discharged
from the furnace is 1350°C. The slag contains large quanti-
ties of oxides of iron, calcium, and zinc. It has a low viscos-
ity (0.3 – 0.4 Pa·sec) and is moves as a fluid, which intensi-
fies its interaction with the refractories.
The Kivcet furnace began operation with a dinas refrac
tory for the roof of the electrothermal chamber and
periclase-chromite products for the bottom and the walls. Its
initial campaign was 10 months, which is inadequate. The
furnace had to be shut down due to fracture of the dinas roof
of the electrodynamic chamber, leaking of the bottom where
it was joined to the walls and in the region under the elec
trodes, and rapid wear of elements of the openings in the
smelting and electrothermal chambers. The thickness of
some sections of the roof had decreased from the original
value of 300 mm to no more than 10 mm (Fig. 1). The great
est wear of the lining of the walls was seen near the gas flue.
Studies of the performance of refractories have shown
that the design of the lining needs to be improved in order to
make the lining of Kivcet furnaces more durable. We have
developed recommendations on creating a lining that is uni
formly durable by using refractories with a high resistance to
wear [1, 2].
In accordance with the recommendations, the Kivcet fur
nace is lined with a combination of highly wear-resistant
sintered periclase-chromite refractories, refractories based on
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 54, No. 5, January, 2014
1083-4877/14/05405-0350 © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.