ISSN 10214437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2015, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 322–327. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses
adversely affecting crop productivity. It may develop
due to several direct (improper irrigation practices)
and indirect (global warming) anthropogenic factors
and natural consequences (meteorological). Intergov
ernmental panel on climate change reported that man
induced climate change may increase the frequency of
waterlogging events in future.
Waterlogging leads to development of rapid hypoxia
and anoxia in the soil because of slow diffusion of oxy
gen in water as compared to air. Oxygen is the terminal
acceptor in mitochondrial electron transport. In the
absence of oxygen, plant shifts its metabolism to anaer
obic mode . ATP production is hampered and all the
metabolic activities are adversely affected. Many pro
teins are induced in response to waterlogging. Most of
the induced proteins are glycolytic and fermentation
enzymes . Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is the key
enzyme involved in anaerobic fermentation. ADH
converts acetaldehyde into ethanol with the oxidation
of NADH into
. Though, in anaerobic fermen
tation, efficacy of ATP production is much lower than
aerobic respiration, but the induction of fermentative
metabolism is an adaptive response to waterlogging.
Waterlogging leds to increase in ADH activity in mus
tard , maize [4, 5], and mung bean .
This text was submitted by the authors in English.
Waterlogging prevents the aerial influx of
which leads to reduction in photosynthesis. Under
waterlogging, ABAmediated stomatal closure was
observed in tomato . Effect of waterlogging on pho
tosynthesis has been extensively studied. Reduction in
photosynthetic parameters was observed in maize ,
barley , mung bean , and tomato .
Chlorophyll is the important constituent of light
harvesting complex in photosynthetic apparatus of
plants. Therefore, chlorophyll content is directly asso
ciated with the photosynthesis. Under waterlogging,
reduction in the chlorophyll content was evident in
maize , barley , mung bean , and soybean .
Reduction in photosynthesis leads to restrictions in car
bohydrate metabolism in plants, which adversely affects
the availability of sugars . Reduction in sugar con
tent under waterlogged condition was observed in maize
, while accumulation of starch was observed in leaves
of luffa .
Low energy supply and altered redox state of the
cells are responsible for ROS production under hypoxic
and anoxic conditions. Increase in ROS concentration
may cause lipid peroxidation, enzyme inactivation and
oxidative damage to DNA. Oxidative injury due to
waterlogging leads to membrane disintegrity due to lipid
peroxidation. Reduction in membrane stability under
waterlogging was reported in corn , winter rape ,
and barley .
Pigeonpea is an important legume crop of rainfed
agriculture in tropics and subtropics. The crop is gen
erally sown during June–July. At early growth stages,
Effect of Waterlogging on Photosynthetic and Biochemical
Parameters in Pigeonpea
R. Bansal and J. P. Srivastava
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India;
fax: 0915422368993, email: email@example.com
Received July 30, 2014
—We studied the effect of waterlogging stress on photosynthetic and biochemical parameters in
(L.) Mill sp.] genotypes viz. ICPL84023 (waterlogging resistant) and MAL18
(waterlogging susceptible). Plants at early growth stage (20 days) were subjected to stress by keeping the pots
in water filled containers. Stress was imposed for six days. Waterlogging reduced carbon exchange rate, sto
matal conductance, intercellular CO
concentration and transpiration rate. Photosynthesis was limited by
stomatal as well as nonstomatal components under waterlogging. Reduction in chlorophyll, starch and
increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity along with the membrane injury were observed under waterlog
ging. High carboxylation efficiency, more chlorophyll content, starch availability, alcohol dehydrogenase
activity, and membrane stability were associated with better survival of ICPL84023 under waterlogging.
Keywords: Cajanus cajan
, photosynthesis, waterlogging, alcohol dehydrogenase, chlorophyll
: ADH—alcohol dehydrogenase; DTT—dithio
threitol; EU—enzyme units; IRGA—infra red gas analyzer.