Effect of Various Factors on the Dispersity
of Copper Nanopowders Produced by Reduction
of Copper Salts with Glycerol
I. I. Obraztsova, G. Yu. Simenyuk, and N. K. Eremenko
Kemerovo Branch of the Institute of Solid-State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo, Russia
Received June 18, 2008
Abstract—Effect of the nature of a copper salt and initiators on the dispersity of copper powders was studied.
The dispersity was determined by electron microscopy, X-ray phase analysis, and method of small-angle X-ray
scattering, as well as from the specific surface area found by the BET technique.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 6, pp. 981–985. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009.
Original Russian Text © I.I. Obraztsova, G.Yu. Simenyuk, N.K. Eremenko, 2009, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2009, Vol. 82, No. 6, pp. 926–930.
Of considerable recent interest in view of the
intensive development and wide introduction of com-
puter technologies and various electronic equipment in
all fields of science, technology, and industries is the
replacement of noble metals with composites based on
ultradispersed copper nanopowders, because the latter
are nearly as good in electrical and heat conductivity,
but are substantially less expensive and more ac-
cessible. Therefore, development of techniques for
production of nanosize copper particles and materials
based on these powders is a topical task of indubitable
Electronic engineering for the most part uses
powders produced by explosion of conductors, con-
densation techniques, and electrolysis, which requires
specialized equipment and involves gross energy
expenditure. The most economically efficient are
chemical techniques for production of copper powders
by reduction of copper salts. This enables wide
variation of the size and shape of powder particles and
of the impurity content and, consequently, allows
purposeful control over their properties.
Previously, methods for production of ultra-
dispersed copper powders by reduction of various cop-
per(II) salts with glycerol, ascorbic acid, and sodium
hypophosphite have been developed [1–3]. It has been
shown that chemical modification of ultradispersed
copper powders can yield composites with increased
stability (epoxy composites, >10 years; novolac com-
posites, >6 years) and electrical conductivity (10
Ω m) . The influence exerted by the nature of a
reducing agent on the dispersity, stability, and
electrical conductivity of copper powders has been
In this study, the influence exerted by the nature of
a copper(II) salt and initiators on the dispersity of
copper powders produced by reduction of copper salts
with glycerol was examined. New dispersity data were
compared with data on the electrical conductivity of
novolac composites based on these powders, reported
in [4, 6].
Copper nanopowders (NPs) produced by reduction
of copper salts with glycerol were used in the study.
As starting copper compounds served salts of both
inorganic (sulfate, basic carbonate) and organic
(formate, acetate) acids. As initiators of the process of
copper sulfate reduction with glycerol were used
various organic acids-reducing agents (ascorbic,
acetylsalicylic, and citric acids). The procedures used
were described in .
Copper nanopowders were studied using high-
resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM,