In a general situation a non-uniform velocity field gives rise to a shift of the otherwise straight acoustic pulse trajectory between the transmitter and receiver transducers of a sonic anemometer. The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of trajectory shifts on the velocity as measured by the sonic anemometer. This determination has been accomplished by developing a mathematical model of the measuring process carried out by sonic anemometers; a model which includes the non-straight trajectory effect. The problem is solved by small perturbation techniques, based on the relevant small parameter of the problem, the Mach number of the reference flow, M. As part of the solution, a general analytical expression for the deviations of the computed measured speed from the nominal speed has been obtained. The correction terms of both the transit time and of the measured speed are of M 2 order in rotational velocity field. The method has been applied to three simple, paradigmatic flows: one-directional horizontal and vertical shear flows, and mixed with a uniform horizontal flow.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 5, 2007
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