Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 5, pp. 766−772.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © B.I. Gurevich, A.M. Kalinkin, V.V. Tyukavkina, E.V. Kalinkina, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 5,
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Effect of the Mechanical Activation of Baddeleyite
Concentrate on Its Binding Properties in the Composition
of Mixed Cements
B. I. Gurevich, A. M. Kalinkin, V. V. Tyukavkina, and E. V. Kalinkina
Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Raw, Kola Scientiﬁ c Center,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Murmansk oblast, Russia
Received April 27, 2010
Abstract—The binding properties of the baddeleyite concentrate mechanically treated with the use of Portland
cement and alumina clinkers as activator were studied.
Presently, zirconium oxides and their compounds,
both synthetic and natural, are used in many high-tech
ﬁ elds of engineering and technology (e.g., sorption and
catalysis). Because mechanical strength, true density and
melting point of zirconium oxides are high, they can be
also used in the construction of nuclear power plants to
protect reactors against γ-radiation .
For this purpose, the most suitable form is the natural
zirconium dioxide, baddeleyite, whose content in the con-
centrate produced at the Kovdorsky mining plant (Kov-
dor, Murmansk oblast’) amounts to more than 95 wt %.
It is known that the mechanical activation (MA) of
binders (cements) enhances their hydration ability and
can reduce speciﬁ c energy consumption in their produc-
tion due to replacement of clinker by mineral admixtures
without reducing construction and technical properties
[2–5]. It was found that synthetic zirconium dioxide
of the monoclinic modiﬁ cation (baddeleyite) subjected
to mechanical activation in a centrifugal planetary mill
transforms into dispersed ZrO
of the tetragonal modi-
ﬁ cation, which is metastable at room temperature and
contains microdeformations . The above processes
can signiﬁ cantly affect binding properties of zirconium
The study is concerned with the effect of mechanical
activation of baddeleyite concentrate (BC) on its binding
properties in the composition of mixed cements.
We used in the study baddeleyite concentrate of the
following chemical composition (wt %): (ZrО
0.04, СаО 1.54, MgO 0.25,
0.21, and TiO
0.06. The BC
density was 5.82 g cm
The bulk of BC constitutes baddeleyite, with crystals
in the grain ranging from 0.005 to 0.1–0.3, rarely to
0.5 mm, in diameter. The impurities are magnetite and
single grains of apatite, forsterite, and calcite, as con-
ﬁ rmed by the results of crystal-optic analysis. Baddeleyite
grains in BC are ﬂ attened, prismatic or irregular in shape.
The mineral is brown-reddish and contains light-yellow
and dark brown, almost black, crystals. Commonly,
baddeleyite crystals are ﬂ attened along (100) planes and
slightly elongated along (001) planes. The habit facets
are (100) and (110). Forms (102), (011), (112), (702),
and (010) are less developed. Facets (100) and (110) are
often hatched. Crystals of dark color have more perfect
form. Often there are spotty crystals of uneven coloration.
Sometimes, the head of the crystal is colored weaker than
the rest. Intergrowth twins, cruciform along (110) plane
and simple along (100) plane, are quite often and those
cranked along (101) plane are much rarer.
The average effective speciﬁ c activity А
of the BC