EFFECT OF THE GEOMETRY OF THE METAL CONDUITS
OF A TUNDISH AND THE CASTING PARAMETERS
ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CONTINUOUS SECTION CASTERS
S. A. Botnikov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 10 – 14, July, 2014.
Original article submitted April 9, 2014.
This article relates the experiences of the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combine and the Pervouralsk New Tube
Plant in mastering the operation of continuous section casters. It examines how the startup of the strands is af
fected by the geometries of the submersible nozzle, the metering nozzle, and adjustments made to the process
parameters. Recommendations are given to make the section caster more reliable during startup and casting.
Keywords: continuous caster, continuous casting, tundish, submersible nozzles, metering nozzles, K-start.
A large number of continuous section casters has been
built in Russia and the CIS nations over the last 10 years. In
the course of mastering the production of continuous-cast
semifinished products, factories have encountered difficul-
ties with the startup of the casters’ strands in connection with
the geometry of the metal conduits and adjustments that are
made to the caster. These problems have in turn lowered pro-
ductivity and lengthened the amount of time needed for
steelmaking shops to reach their design capacity. When con
tinuous casting was being introduced at the Chelyabinsk
Metallurgical Combine (ChMK) from 2004 to 2007 and at
the Pervoural’sk New Tube Plant during 2011 and 2012,
metal losses incurred with the startup of the strands were the
third-largest contributor to total metal loss according to sta
tistical data. These problems were solved by introducing new
automated equipment to start the strands and employing a
new design for the refractories of the tundish’s metal con
duits — the stopper-monoblock, metering nozzle, and sub
Nearly all modern continuous casters are designed in
such a way that the initial filling of the mold can be con
trolled automatically in accordance with a special algorithm
included in its control system. The advantage of this feature
is that the stopper is always opened at the same moment, but
the disadvantage is that any deviations in the volume of the
incoming steel from the prescribed value (excessively fast or
slow filling of the mold) are not automatically detected and
corrected. Some metallurgical plants always used automated
strand startup, but this requires satisfaction of the following
1. The temperature of the steel in the tundish should be
consistent with the requirements of the technology.
2. The fluidity of the steel should be consistent with the
requirements of the technology.
3. The entire lining of the tundish should be evenly
4. The submersible nozzles, metering nozzles, and stop
per-monoblocks should also be uniformly heated.
5. The period of time from the moment the heating of
the tundish is ended until the moment the slide gate of the
steel-pouring ladle is opened should be as short as possible.
6. The geometry and quality of the tundish’s metal con
duits should allow for reliable control of the flow of the steel
from the tundish into the mold.
It is inadvisable to use the automated mold-filling feature
at the start of operation of a strand if even one of the above
conditions is not met. Thus, the first filling of the mold is
performed manually in order to ensure reliable startup of the
In foreign practice, the submersible nozzle — which can
be changed during the casting operation — is called a “sub
merged entry shroud” (SES, Fig. 1a ). The submersible noz
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 55, No. 4, November, 2014
1083-4877/14/05504-0272 © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York
From materials of the International Conference of Refractory
Specialists and Metallurgists (April3–4,2014, Moscow).
Chusovoi Affiliate of the OAO “Trudodetal’,” Permsk Krai, Rus