Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 9, pp. 1422−1427.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © A.O. Savitsky, L.V. Vinogradova, V.A. Lukoshkin, A.E. Bursian, A.V. Ten’kovtsev, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012,
Vol. 85, No. 9, pp. 1511−1516.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Effect of the Aggregation of 4-[5-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxopenta-
1,4-dienyl]benzoic Acid and Its Potassium Salt
in a Polymeric Matrix on the Third-Order Nonlinear Optical
Susceptibility of Polymer–Chromophore Composites
A. O. Savitsky
, L. V. Vinogradova
, V. A. Lukoshkin
, A. E. Bursian
and A. V. Ten’kovtsev
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received June 14, 2012
Abstract—Aggregation of 4-[5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxopenta-1,4-dienyl]benzoic acid (chromophore) and its
potassium salt in optically neutral polymeric matrices was studied. The dependence of the third-order nonlinear
optical properties of the chromophore–polymer composites on the aggregate size was determined.
The development and improvement of telecommuni-
cation methods and the development of optical systems
for processing and control of light beams require new
materials with high values of the third-order optical
susceptibility, low optical loss, and short response time.
Among the developing ﬁ elds of science and engineer-
ing that use light (photons) for information processing,
electronics and photonics have particular demand for
optical switches. Therefore, search for and study of new
organic, in particular, polymeric materials capable for
nonlinear interaction with electromagnetic radiation is
of large interest.
The most widely used method for preparing nonlinear-
optical (NLO) materials is dispersing chromophores in a
polymer matrix. In this approach to preparing NLO com-
posites, the role of intermolecular interactions and order-
ing practically was not taken into account until recently,
despite the fact that these factors form the basis for the use
of nonlinear optical methods for studying the structure of
biological and polymeric objects [1, 2]. The effect of ag-
gregation on variation of third-order NLO properties was
considered only for a small group of cyanine dyes forming
supramolecular structures (J-aggregates) [3–6], but such
materials do not have sufﬁ cient stability of properties in
the course of prolonged storage [7–9].
This study deals with the effect of the chromophore
component aggregation on the third-order nonlinear
optical properties of chromophore–polymer compounds
under the conditions ensuring predominant interactions
between the NLO-active molecules. For this purpose,
we prepared systems with 4-[5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-
oxopenta-1,4-dienyl]benzoic acid as chromophore and
optically neutral polymers [polyethylene glycol (PEG),
polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), poly-N-vinylpyrrol-
idone (PVP)] as polymeric matrices.
The chromophore was synthesized by two-step aldol
condensation. In the ﬁ rst step, by the reaction of 4-hy-
droxybenzaldehyde with acetone, we prepared 4-(4-hy-
droxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one , which in the second
step reacted with the excess of 4-carboxybenzaldehyde to
form the chromophore. The potassium salt of the chromo-