Effect of tea saponin on phytoremediation of Cd and pyrene
in contaminated soils by Lolium multiflorum
Received: 23 October 2016 /Accepted: 12 June 2017 /Published online: 27 June 2017
Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017
Abstract Tea saponin (TS), a kind of green biosurfactant pro-
duced by plants, was added into the Cd–pyrene co-contaminated
soils to evaluate its influence on phytoremediation of Cd and
pyrene by Lolium multiflorum. The results showed that the ac-
cumulation of pyrene in L. multiflorum was significantly promot-
ed by the TS. Compared with no TS treatments (PL and ML), the
aboveground concentrations of pyrene in TS treatments (PLT
and MLT) increased by 135 and 30%, respectively, and the un-
derground concentrations of pyrene in TS treatments (PLT and
MLT) increased by 40 and 25%. The concentrations of Cd in the
aboveground and underground parts in single contaminated
treatments were all significantly more than those in co-
contaminated treatments, while the situation of pyrene was quite
the reverse. Besides, the addition of TS enhanced activities of
dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase in soils and increased
the biomass of L. multiflorum. The micromorphology of
L. multiflorum was not affected by TS. The study suggests that
the use of L. multiflorum with TS is an alternative technology for
remediation of Cd–pyrene co-contaminated soils.
Soil enzyme activity
Heavy metals and organic pollutants often combine in pollut-
ed sites; they are toxic and harmful to ecosystems and human
health (Pérez et al. 2010). The polycyclic aromatic hydrocar-
bons (PAHs) and heavy metals are frequently found in many
contaminated sites, such as manufactured gas plant sites
(Thavamani et al. 2012), mining and metallurgy industry sites
(Bisone et al. 2013), sediments of natural water bodies
(Colacicco et al. 2010), etc.
A large and growing body of researches has focused on
phytoremediation of heavy metals and organics in contaminated
soils (Chigbo and Batty 2014;Singeretal.2007).
Phytoremediation technology has attracted more and more atten-
tion of people. It is the most sustainable and economical strategy
for remediation of the contaminated soil (Abbas et al. 2016).
Though phytoremediation has many advantages, limitations still
existed in this technology (Rascio and Navari-Izzo 2011). It is
obvious that the plants grow slowly and more time will be spent
to remediate the contaminated sites. In the latest study, surfactants
have been used to enhance phytoremediation (Chen et al.
2016b). The potential of surfactants to improve desorption of
pollutants, plant uptake, and biodegradation of hydrophobic or-
ganic contaminants (HOCs) has been evaluated (Gao et al.
2007). Surfactants could enhance the bioaccessibility of pollut-
ants in the soils, thus to improve the accumulation and degrada-
tion effect of remediation plants (Wang et al. 2010).
Recently, biosurfactant has been attracting more and more
attention as a nontoxic and biodegradable surfactant.
Almansoory et al. (2015) reported that the largest removal
ratio (up to 93.5%) of the total petroleum hydrocarbons
(TPH) appeared in the biosurfactant-treated treatment. The
removal ratios in the bacteria-treated treatment, culture
supernatant-treated treatment, and sodium dodecyl sulfate
(SDS)-treated treatment were 85.4, 70.3, and 86.3%. Liao
Responsible editor: Elena Maestri
* Xinying Zhang
Laboratory of Environmental Remediation, College of Environment
and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No.99, Shangda
Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai 200444, China
Environ Sci Pollut Res (2017) 24:18946–18952