ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 10, pp. 1588−1595. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © Yu.P. Steksova, I.S. Berdyugina, A.A. Shibaev, A.V. Ukhina, E.A. Maksimovskii, M.V. Popov, A.G. Bannov,
2016, published in Zhurnal
Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 10, pp. 1265−1273.
INORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
At present, active work is in progress, concerned with
the development of new carbon materials for various
applications. A topical issue is the search for new methods
for synthesis of graphite-like materials.
Expanded graphite (EG), intercalated graphite or
graphite oxide subjected to a thermal or chemical treat-
ment, is among materials of this kind . EG has such
characteristics as chemical resistance, anisotropic electri-
cal and heat conductivity, elasticity, compressibility, and
stability against high temperatures .
EG can be produced from intercalated graphite (IG)
or graphite oxide. Several stages can be distinguished.
First stage. The starting graphite is oxidized via
introduction of strong oxidizing agents (mostly acids)
and other compounds. IG is obtained as a result of this
treatment. EG can be obtained in a single stage directly
from IG or via transformation of the latter into the graphite
oxide form. To obtain graphite oxide, IG is washed by
water and dried.
Second stage. The oxidized (or intercalated) graphite
is subjected to a thermal treatment. This can be done in
(a) Thermal shock which is a short-time thermal
treatment. Owing to high temperatures (800–1500°C)
and exceedingly high heating rate, there occurs a
sharp evolution of gaseous products formed during the
decomposition of compounds that were introduced into
the interlayer space of graphite .
(b) Programmed heating. With this method, a sample
of intercalated graphite or graphite oxide is heated at a
certain rate to temperatures of 400–700°C. In this case,
the thermal treatment is more gradual and the EG has
absolutely different characteristics, compared with the
materials produced by the thermal shock [1, 4].
The EG produced by the above methods can be
rolled and compacted to obtain products . It can be
used as ﬁ ller of polymer composites  for radiation
and electromagnetic waves protection and as a material
Effect of Synthesis Parameters on Characteristics
of Expanded Graphite
Yu. P. Steksova
, I. S. Berdyugina
, A. A. Shibaev
, A. V. Ukhina
, E. A. Maksimovskii
M. V. Popov
, and A. G. Bannov
Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Institute of Solid-State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk, 630128 Russia
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Akademika Lavrent’eva 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Received September 9, 2016
Abstract—Effect of synthesis parameters on the characteristics of expanded graphite were studied. The starting
sample, intercalated graphite, was treated by several methods: thermal shock (400, 1000°C) and programmed
heating (400–700°C). The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spec-
troscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The programmed-heating method
yields better texture characteristics as compared with the thermal shock. The programmed-heating method was
used to obtain high-quality expanded graphite with high speciﬁ c surface area (299 m
) at a comparatively
moderate temperature of 400°C.