Res. Chem. Intermed.
, Vol. 34, Nos 5–7, pp. 629–639 (2008)
Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2008.
Also available online - www.brill.nl/rci
Effect of synthesis conditions on preparation of
mesoporous titania–silica by a modiﬁed sol–gel technique
using a cationic surfactant
R. M. MOHAMED
and I. OTHMAN
Central Metallurgical R&D Institute, Department of Nanostructured Material, Helwan, Cairo,
Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Al-Azhar University, Nasser City, Cairo, Egypt
Received 11 January 2007; accepted 17 January 2007
Abstract—Titania–silica mesoporous materials have been synthesized by a modiﬁed sol–gel tech-
nique using a cationic surfactant. The synthesis process was studied using statistical design of exper-
iments to achieve the best conditions for titania–silica preparation. The synthesized materials were
characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and surface area measurements. The XRD and SEM results
showed an amorphous structure of titania–silica. The surface area measurements using nitrogen ad-
sorption showed type-IV isotherms which indicate the formation of mesoporous structure. A high
surface area can be obtained (685 m
/g). The crystal size of titania–silica calculated using Scherrer’s
equation was found to be in the range 8–15 nm.
Keywords: Titania; silica; modiﬁed sol–gel technique; statistical design.
The synthesis of mesoporous silica-based materials is the interest of many re-
searchers around the globe [1, 2]. Recently, various efforts have been reported to
synthesize mesoporous metal oxides due to their wide applications [3, 4]. Titanium
, is one of the transition metal oxides that has multiple applications. The
mesoporous structure of TiO
has been synthesized, to produce high surface area
materials, by a modiﬁed sol–gel method with different surfactants, such as phos-
phate surfactants [5–7], amines [8–12] and non-ionic surfactants [13, 14].
Many studies on the preparation of mesoporous materials using self-assembled
structures, such as surfactants or block co-polymers, as a template have been
reported. The modiﬁed sol–gel method using surfactants was recently used to
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